(b. 2 Mar. 1937).
Algerian President, 1999– Born in Morocco, he joined the Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) in 1956. Following independence he served as Foreign Minister (1962–79) under Ben Bella and Boumédienne. After living abroad he returned to Algeria, and in 1999 won the elections at the head of the FLN. His overwhelming election victories in 1999 and 2004 in a country torn by civil war resulted in charges of electoral fraud. He was partially successful in overcoming the civil war by appeasing a number of Islamist groups, but proved unable to bring about a comprehensive peace settlement.