Federal organization developed by the twelve Achaean cities united in cult of Zeus. First mentioned in 453 bc as Athenian allies, Achaea's independence was guaranteed in 446 (Thirty Years Peace). In the Peloponnesian War neutrality proved impossible, and Achaea fell into Sparta's sphere of influence. Common citizenship existed by 389. In the 2nd cent. the confederacy expanded to absorb all Peloponnese.
Subjects: Classical studies