Ali Abd al-Raziq
Egyptian qadi, intellectual, and author. Born to a powerful and wealthy landowning family in Minya, Abd al-Raziq received both Western and traditional Islamic educations at Oxford and al-Azhar. In 1925 he published the highly controversial and influential Al-Islam wa-usul al-hukm (Islam and the sources of political authority), which argued against the idea of a specifically Islamic notion of government. Most contentious was his assertion that Muhammad's role was that of a prophet and spiritual—not political—leader. His writings continue to inspire debate, illustrating the extent to which these issues dominate contemporary Muslim political thought.
See also Law: Modern Legal Reform