Algerian independence leader, Sufi mystic, and poet. Born in Algeria to a notable Moroccan family. Became involved in the Algerian independence movement after the French occupation of Algiers (1830). In 1834 assumed the title amir al-muminin (commander of the faithful). Surrendered in the wake of successive French military victories (1847). Originally a Qadiri Sufi, but joined the Naqshbandis in Damascus, where he lived in self-exile after his surrender. Known works include Kitab al-mawaqif (Book of stages), a commentary on the doctrines of Ibn al-Arabi, and a collection of mystical poems.
See also Salafi