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Muʿāwiya (661—680)


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ʿAbd al-Malik


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(r. 685–705)

Umayyad caliph responsible for standardizing imperial coinage and collecting a corpus of hadith to be interpreted by appointed faqihs (Muslim jurists), causing hadith to emerge as a cornerstone of Islamic scholarship. Arabized and centralized the state administration, creating a new class of bureaucrats; the Arabization program led to the development of Arabic-language sciences, particularly adab literature, and the emergence of Arabic as the empire's official language. Sponsored public art featuring Islamic themes. During his reign, the Dome of the Rock was constructed, Jerusalem was appropriated as a holy place for Islam, and the first Arabic-script coinage of the Islamic empire was struck.

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