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date: 06 March 2021

Confounding Bias 

A Dictionary of Epidemiology

Miquel Porta

1. Bias of the estimated effect of an exposure on an outcome due to the presence of common causes of the exposure and the outcome. Example: The effect of aspirin use on the risk of stroke will be confounded if aspirin is more likely to be prescribed to individuals with heart disease, which is hence both an indication for treatment and a ...


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