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date: 08 March 2021

Counterfactual Outcome 

A Dictionary of Epidemiology

Miquel Porta

The outcome that an individual would have experienced if he had received a particular treatment or exposure value. There are as many counterfactual outcomes as possible treatment values. For each individual, the value of the counterfactual outcome under the treatment value that the individual actually received equals the observed outcome (a property of counterfactual outcomes known as consistency). Individual causal effects are defined by a contrast between an individual’s counterfactual outcomes. Average causal effects are defined by a contrast between the average counterfactual outcomes in a group of individuals.... ...

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