Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD REFERENCE (www.oxfordreference.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2013. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single entry from a reference work in OR for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

Subscriber: null; date: 22 October 2019

Appendix A: Classification

Source:
A Dictionary of Genetics

Appendix A: Classification

Classification: the subdivision of organisms into an evolutionary hierarchy of groups. The formal hierarchy proceeding from the largest to the smallest group is kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. To allow further subdivisions, the names grade or division are sometimes placed between kingdom and phylum, the name branch is placed between phylum and class, the name cohort between class and order, and the name tribe between family and genus. In addition, the prefixes super- and sub- may be added to any group name.

CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING ORGANISMS

  • superkingdom Prokaryotes (q.v.)

    • kingdom 1 Prokaryotae

      • subkingdom Archaea (formerly Archaebacteria)

        • phylum Euryarchaeota (methanogens and halophiles) Archaeoglobus, Halobacterium, Methanococcus, Pyrococcus, Thermoplasma

        • phylum Crenarchaeota (sulfur-dependent thermophiles) Desulfurococcus, Sulfolobus, Thermoproteus

      • subkingdom Bacteria (formerly Eubacteria)

        • phylum Proteobacteria (Acetobacter, Agrobacterium, Azotobacter, Escherichia, Haemophilus, Helicobacter, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Rickettsia, Salmonella, Serratia, Shigella, Wolbachia, Yersinia)

        • phylum Spirochaetae (Borrelia, Spirochaeta, Treponema)

        • phylum Cyanobacteria (Anabaena, Prochlorococcus, Prochloron, Synechocystis)

        • phylum Saprospirae (Saprospira)

        • phylum Chloroflexa (Chloroflexus)

        • phylum Chlorobia (Chlorobium)

        • phylum Aphragmabacteria (Mycoplasma, Spiroplasma)

        • phylum Endospora (Bacillus, Clostridium, Streptococcus)

        • phylum Pirellulae (Chlamydia)

        • phylum Actinobacteria (Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium, Streptomyces)

        • phylum Deinococci (Deinococcus, Staphylococcus, Thermus)

        • phylum Thermotogae (Thermotoga)

  • superkingdom Eukaryotes (q.v.)

    • kingdom 2 Protoctista (q.v.)

      •  

        • phylum Archaeprotista (Barbulanympha, Giardia, Trichonympha)

        • phylum Microspora (Nosema)

        • phylum Glaucocystophyta (Glaucocystis, Cyanospora)

        • phylum Caryoblastea (Pelomyxa)

        • phylum Dinoflagellata (Gonyaulax)

        • phylum Rhizopoda (Amoeba)

        • phylum Chrysophyta (Ochromonas)

        • phylum Haptophyta (Prymnesium)

        • phylum Euglenida (Euglena)

        • phylum Cryptomonada (Chroomonas, Cryptomonas, Rhodomonas)

        • phylum Zoomastigina (animal flagellates, Leishmania, Trichonympha, Trypanosoma)

        • phylum Xanthophyta (Vaucheria)

        • phylum Eustigmatophyta (Vischeria)

        • phylum Bacillariophyta (diatoms, Diatoma)

        • phylum Phaeophyta (brown algae, Fucus, Macrocystis)

        • phylum Rhodophyta (red algae, Cyanidioschyzon, Polysiphonia)

        • phylum Gamophyta (conjugating green algae and desmids, Spirogyra and Micrasterias)

        • phylum Chlorophyta (green algae forming flagellated gametes, Acetabularia, Chlamydomonas, Chlorella, Mesostigma, Volvox)

        • phylum Actinopoda (radiolarians and heliozoans, Acanthocystis, Sticholonche)

        • phylum Foraminifera (Fusulina, Globigerina)

        • phylum Ciliophora (ciliates, Paramecium, Stylonychia, Tetrahymena)

        • phylum Apicomplexa (Cryptosporidium, Plasmodium)

        • phylum Labyrinthulomycota (slime nets, Labyrinthula)

        • phylum Acrasiomycota (cellular slime molds, Dictyostelium, Polysphondylium)

        • phylum Myxomycota (plasmodial slime molds, Echinostelium, Physarum)

        • phylum Plasmodiophoromycota (Plasmidiophora)

        • phylum Hyphochytriomycota (Hyphochytrium)

        • phylum Chytridiomycota (Blastocladiella)

        • phylum Oomycota (Phytophthora, Saprolegnia)

        • phylum Choanoflagellata (Monosigna)

    • kingdom 3 Fungi (q.v.)

      •  

        • phylum Zygomycota (conjugating fungi, Mucor, Phycomyces, Pilobolus, Rhizopus)

        • phylum Basidiomycota (club fungi, Agaricus, Amanita, Puccinia, Schizophyllum, Ustilago)

        • phylum Ascomycota (sac fungi, Aspergillus, Neurospora, Penicillium, Podospora, Saccharomyces, Schizosaccharomyces, Sordaria, Tuber)

    • kingdom 4 Animalia (q.v.)

      • subkingdom Parazoa (q.v.)

        • phylum Placozoa (Trichoplax)

        • phylum Porifera (sponges, Amphimedon)

      • subkingdom Mesozoa (q.v.)

        • phylum Rhombozoa (Dicyema)

        • phylum Orthonectida (Rhopalura)

      • subkingdom Eumetazoa (q.v.)

      • grade Radiata (q.v.)

        • phylum Cnidaria (Coelenterates)

          • class Hydrozoa (hydroids, Hydra, Cladonema)

          • class Scyphozoa (true jelly fish, Physalia)

          • class Anthozoa (corals and sea anemones, Metridium, Nematostella)

        • phylum Ctenophora (comb jellies, Mnemiopsis)

      • grade Bilateria (q.v.)

      • subgrade Protostomia (q.v.)

      • superphylum Acoelomata (q.v.)

        • phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms)

          • class Turbellaria (planarians)

          • class Trematoda (flukes, Schistosoma)

          • class Cestoda (tapeworms)

        • phylum Nemertini (alternative spellings Nemertinea, Nemertea) (ribbon worms, Rhynchocoela)

        • phylum Gnathostomulida

      • superphylum Pseudocoelomata (q.v.)

        • phylum Acanthocephala (spiny-headed worms)

        • phylum Entoprocta (entoprocts)

        • phylum Aschelminthes (q.v.)

      • subphylum Rotifera (rotifers)

      • subphylum Gastrotricha (gastrotrichs)

        • phylum Loricifera (loriciferans)

      • subphylum Kinorhyncha (kinorhynchs)

      • subphylum Priapulida (priapulids)

      • subphylum Nematoda (round worms, Ascaris, Caenorhabditis, Parascaris)

      • subphylum Nematomorpha (Gordiacea) (horsehair worms)

      • superphylum Coelomata (q.v.)

      • division Tentaculata

        • phylum Phoronida (phoronids)

        • phylum Ectoprocta (bryozoa)

        • phylum Brachiopoda (brachiopods)

      • division Inarticulata (q.v.)

        • phylum Sipunculoidea (sipunculids)

        • phylum Mollusca (molluscs)

          • class Amphineura (chitins)

          • class Scaphopoda (tooth shells)

          • class Gastropoda (snails, Aplysia, Cepaea, Lymnaea)

          • class Pelecypoda (bivalves, Crassostrea, Mytilus)

          • class Cephalopoda (squids, octopuses, Nautilus)

      • division Articulata (q.v.)

        • phylum Echiuroidea (echiuroids)

        • phylum Pentastomida (tongue worms) (parasites)

        • subdivision Ecdysozoa

        • phylum Annelida (segmented worms)

          • class Polychaeta (marine worms)

          • class Oligochaeta (earthworms)

          • class Hirudinea (leeches)

        • phylum Tardigrada (water bears)

        • phylum Onychophora (Peripatus)

        • phylum Arthropoda

        • branch Chelicerata

          • class Merostomata (horseshoe crabs)

            • order Xiphosura (Limulus)

          • class Pycnogonida (sea spiders)

          • class Arachnida (scorpions, opilionids, mites, spiders)

        • branch Mandibulata

          • class Crustacea

            • order Branchiopoda (shrimps)

            • order Ostracoda (ostracods)

            • order Copepoda (copepods)

            • order Cirripedia (barnacles)

            • order Malacostraca (lobsters and crabs)

          • class Myriapoda

            • order Diplopoda (millipedes)

            • order Chilopoda (centipedes)

          • class Hexapoda

          • subclass Entognatha

            • order Collembola (springtails)

            • order Protura (proturans)

            • order Diplura (campodeans)

          • subclass Insecta

          • cohort Apterygota (primitively wingless insects)

            • order Archaeognatha (machilids)

            • order Zygentoma (silverfish)

          • cohort Pterygota (winged insects)

          • subcohort Paleoptera (extended wing)

            • order Ephemeroptera (Mayflies)

            • order Odonata (dragonflies)

          • subcohort Neoptera (hinged wing)

          • superorder Hemimetabola (no pupal stage)

            • order Embioptera (embiids)

            • order Phasmida (stick insects)

            • order Orthoptera (grasshoppers)

            • order Grylloblattaria (grylloblatids)

            • order Dictyoptera (roaches, Blattella)

            • order Isoptera (termites)

            • order Dermaptera (earwigs)

            • order Psocoptera (booklice)

            • order Phthiraptera (sucking lice)

            • order Hemiptera (true bugs)

            • order Plecoptera (stone flies)

            • order Thysanoptera (thrips)

          • superorder Holometabola

            • order Coleoptera (beetles, Tribolium)

            • order Raphidioptera (snakeflies)

            • order Megaloptera (alder flies)

            • order Neuroptera (lacewings)

            • order Hymenoptera (Apis, Microbracon, Mormoniella)

            • order Trichoptera (caddis flies)

            • order Lepidoptera (moths, Biston, Bombyx, Ephestia, Lymantria)

            • order Mecoptera (scorpion flies)

            • order Siphonaptera (fleas)

            • order Diptera (Aedes, Anopheles, Chironomus, Culex, Drosophila, Glyptotendipes, Lucilia, Musca, Rhynchosciara, Sciara)

  •  

    •  

      • subgrade Deuterostomia (q.v.)

        • phylum Echinodermata

          • class Crinoidea (sea lilies)

          • class Asteroidea (starfish)

          • class Ophiuroidea (brittle stars)

          • class Echinoidea (sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus)

          • class Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers)

        • phylum Chaetognatha (arrow worms)

        • phylum Pogonophora (beard worms)

        • phylum Chordata (notochord-bearing animals)

        • subphylum Acraniata (q.v.)

          • branch Hemichordata (acorn worms and pterobranchs)

          • branch Urochordata (tunicates)

          • branch Cephalochordata (lancelets, Branchiostoma)

        • subphylum Craniata (q.v.)

        • branch Agnatha (jawless vertebrates)

          • class Cyclostomata (lampreys)

            • order Myxinoidea (hagfish)

            • order Petromyzontes (lampreys)

        • branch Gnathostoma (jawed vertebrates)

          • class Chondrichthyes (elasmobranchs)

          • class Osteichthyes (bony fish)

          • subclass Palaeopterygii (ancient fishes)

            • order Acipenseriformes (sturgeons)

            • order Semionotiformes (gars)

          • subclass Neopterygii (modern fishes)

            • order Salmoniformes (Salmo)

            • order Anguilliformes (eels)

            • order Cypriniformes (Carassius, Oryzias)

            • order Cyprinodontiformes (Danio, Fundulus, Lebistes)

            • order Perciformes (Tilapia, cichlids)

            • order Siluriformes (catfishes)

            • order Elopiformes (tarpons)

            • order Antheriniformes (Xiphophorus)

            • order Clupeiformes (herrings)

            • order Gasterosteiformes (sea horses)

            • order Pleuronectiformes (flounders)

            • order Tetraodontiformes (Takifugu, Tetraodon)

          • subclass Crossopterygii (lobe-finned fishes)

            • order Dipnoi (lungfishes, Protopterus)

            • order Actinista (coelacanths, Latimeria)

            • class Amphibia

            • order Apoda (caecilians)

            • order Urodela (salamanders, Ambystoma, Notophthalmus, Pleurodeles, Triton, Triturus)

            • order Anura (frogs and toads, Rana, Xenopus)

          • class Reptilia (turtles, alligators, lizards, snakes)

            • order Crocodilia (crocodiles and alligators)

            • order Sphenodontia (tuataras)

            • order Squamata (lizards and snakes)

            • order Testudines (turtles and tortoises)

          • class Aves (birds)

          • subclass Palaeognathae (flightless birds, ostriches, emus)

          • subclass Neognathae (modern birds)

            • order Anseriformes (ducks, Anas)

            • order Galliformes (quail, turkeys, Coturnix, Gallus, Taeniopygia)

            • order Columbiformes (pigeons and doves, Columba)

            • order Psittaciformes (parrots)

            • order Passeriformes (song birds, Darwin’s finches)

          • class Mammalia

          • subclass Protheria (egg-laying mammals, platypus)

          • subclass Metatheria (marsupials, Monodelphis, Potorous)

          • subclass Eutheria (placental mammals)

            • order Insectivora (moles, shrews)

            • order Chiroptera (bats)

            • order Edentata (sloths)

            • order Dasypodidea (armadillos)

            • order Carnivora (carnivores, Canis, Felis, Vulpes, Mustela)

            • order Cetacea (whales)

            • order Proboscidea (elephants)

            • order Pinnipedia (seals)

            • order Perissodactyla (odd-toed ungulates, Equus)

            • order Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates, Bos, Camelus, Ovis, Sus)

            • order Rodentia (rodents, Cavia, Chaetodipus, Chinchilla, Dipodomys, Mesocricetus, Mus, Peromyscus, Rattus)

            • order Lagomorpha (rabbits, Oryctolagus)

            • order Scandentia (tree shrews)

            • order Dermoptera (flying lemurs)

            • order Primates (lemurs, tarsiers, monkeys, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, and humans. Cebus, Cercopithecus, Macaca, Pan)

  •  

    • kingdom 5 Plantae

      •  

        • phylum Bryophyta (q.v.)

        • subphylum Hepaticae (liverworts, Sphaerocarpos)

        • subphylum Anthocerotae (hornworts)

        • subphylum Musci (mosses)

        • phylum Tracheophyta (vascular plants)

        • subphylum Psilophyta (Psilotum)

        • subphylum Lycopodiophyta (clubmosses and quillworts)

        • subphylum Sphenopsida (horsetails)

        • subphylum Pteropsida (ferns and seed plants)

        • superclass Filicinae (ferns)

        • superclass Gymnospermae (cone-bearing, seed plants)

          • class Pteridospermophyta (seed ferns)

          • class Cycadophyta (cycads)

          • class Ginkgophyta (gingkoes)

          • class Coniferophyta (conifers)

          • class Gnetophyta (gnetophytes)

          • superclass Angiospermae (flowering plants)

          • class Dicotyledoneae

            • order Magnoliales (magnolia, avocado)

            • order Rosales (rose, apple, plum, strawberry, raspberry, currant, hemp)

            • order Leguminales (Glycine, Pisum, Phaseolus)

            • order Salicales (willows, Populus)

            • order Fagales (beech, oak, birch)

            • order Geraniales (Nasturtium, Pelargonium)

            • order Cactales (cactuses)

            • order Scrophulariales (Antirrhinum, Collinsia, privet)

            • order Ranales (buttercups, water lilies, lotus, Ranunculus)

            • order Myrtales (myrtle, eucalyptus, Oenothera)

            • order Cruciales (cabbage, turnip, Arabidopsis, radish)

            • order Cucurbitales (Cucurbita, Cucumis)

            • order Caryophyllales (carnations, Mirabilis)

            • order Gentianales (gentians, olives, lilacs, Vinca)

            • order Ericales (Primula)

            • order Malvales (Gossypium, hemp, linden, elm, Theobroma, jute)

            • order Rubiales (coffee, quinine)

            • order Papaverales (poppy)

            • order Hamamelidales (sycamore)

            • order Urticales (nettle, elm, mulberry)

            • order Juglandales (walnut, hickory)

            • order Linales (flax)

            • order Cornales (dogwood, mangrove)

            • order Proteales (macadamia nut)

            • order Sarraceniales (pitcher plant, sundew)

            • order Theales (tea)

            • order Umbellales (carrot, parsnip, celery, ginseng)

            • order Solanales (Capsicum, Datura, Ipomoea, Lycopersicon, Nicotiana, Solanum)

            • order Rhamnales (grapes, ivy)

            • order Boraginales (heliotropes)

            • order Lamiales (lavender, mint, verbenas)

            • order Asterales (composites, silverswords, daisies, sunflowers, Haplopappus)

          • class Monocotyledoneae

            • order Palmales (palms)

            • order Graminales (grasses, Hordeum, Oryzae, Triticum, Zea)

            • order Liliales (lilies, tulips, amaryllis, iris, Colchicum)

            • order Commelinales (Tradescantia)

            • order Arales (callas, taros)

            • order Zingiberales (bananas)

            • order Orchidales (orchids)

            • order Bromeliales (pineapple)

For further information on the classification and evolution of life on earth consult: Cracraft, J. and Donoghue, M. J., editors. 2004 Assembling the Tree of Life. Oxford University Press, New York.Diamond, J. 1991 The Rise and Fall of the Third Chimpanzee. Radius, Random Century Group Ltd., London.Futuyma, D. J. 1998 Evolutionary Biology. Third edition, Sinauer Associates Publishers, Sunderland, MA.Margulis, L. 1974 The Classification and Evolution of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. Chapter 1, pages 1–41. In The Handbook of Genetics, R. C. King, editor, Vol. 1, Bacteria, Bacteriophages, and Fungi, Plenum Press, New York.Nielsen, C. 2001 Animal Evolution: Interrelationships of Living Phyla. Second edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, England.Strickberger, M. L. 2000 Evolution. Third edition, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston.Tudge, C. 2000 The Variety of Life. A Survey and a Celebration of all the Creatures that Have Ever Lived. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England.