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date: 22 July 2019

cardinal vowels 

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics

P. H. Matthews

A set of vowels established and recorded by (Daniel) *Jones, to serve as fixed reference points for the description of vowels in any language. Together they define the limits of a space within which vowels can be articulated, and within which a phonetician who has been trained to do so can place any particular vowel that is heard.... ...

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