The Oxford Biblical Studies Online and Oxford Islamic Studies Online have retired. Content you previously purchased on Oxford Biblical Studies Online or Oxford Islamic Studies Online has now moved to Oxford Reference, Oxford Handbooks Online, Oxford Scholarship Online, or What Everyone Needs to Know®. For information on how to continue to view articles visit the subscriber services page.
Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD REFERENCE (www.oxfordreference.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single entry from a reference work in OR for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

Subscriber: null; date: 13 August 2022


A Dictionary of Media and Communication

Daniel Chandler,

Rod Munday


1. A mode of interpersonal relations in which co-present individuals are motivated as rivals in separately achieving the same goal, each striving to outdo the other. See also agon; compare coaction; cooperation.

2. The cultural value of personal success particularly favoured in individualistic cultures.

3. (economics) A market in which consumers have a choice of producers for a given type of product (unlike a monopoly)—potentially keeping prices in check. Such ‘free markets’ are central in capitalist discourse. See market model.

4. Market rivalry, typically in relation to the four Ps.

5. (marketing) Rival companies, products, or services within the same market sector.