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World Encyclopedia


City in Emilia-Romagna, ne Italy. It was the capital of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century ad. It then became capital of the Ostrogothic kingdom and then the seat of the Byzantine government in Italy. An independent republic in the 13th century, it was under papal rule from the 16th to 19th centuries, becoming part of the Kingdom of Italy in 1860. Industries: petroleum, natural gas, furniture, cement, fertilizers, sugar refining. Pop. (2000) 139,771; 350,223 (metropolitan).