Abdul Hamid II
Abdul Hamid II (1842–1918) Last Ottoman sultan (1876–1909).
On his accession, Abdul Hamid suspended Parliament and the new constitution. At the Treaty of San Stefano (1878), he concluded the Russo-Turkish Wars by ceding vast lands to Russia. Abdul Hamid is known as the ‘Great Assassin’ for his part in the Armenian massacres (1894–96) - it is estimated that more than 200,000 Armenians were killed in 1896 alone. In 1908 the Young Turks forced him to reimplement the 1876 constitution, and he was deposed shortly after.