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date: 23 October 2019


The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea
M. V. AngelM. V. Angel

the solid phase of water, which, unusually, is lighter than liquid water. The molecules in ice crystals are arranged in a lattice and are more spaced out than in the liquid. The freezing point of sea water is about -1.9 °C (28.5 °F), depressed below 0 °C (32 °F) by the dissolved salts. It takes 80 calories to melt a gram of ice, enough heat to heat up the gram of liquid water to 80 °C (176 °F); this is termed the latent heat of ice formation. For the sea to freeze, it not only has to be extremely cold but also very windy to keep areas of water open and prevent a skin of ice from insulating the water surface from further cooling. Areas of open water are known as polynyas and are important for ... ...

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