Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD REFERENCE (www.oxfordreference.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2013. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single entry from a reference work in OR for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 29 November 2020

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (pyramid of needs, motivational hierarchy) 

Source:
A Dictionary of Media and Communication
Author(s):

Daniel Chandler,

Rod Munday

A *model of human *motivation developed by Maslow represented as a pyramid of levels, with the most basic needs at the bottom and the most distinctively human needs at the top. In ascending order, these levels are: physiological (e.g. food and sleep), safety, love/belonging (family, friendship, sex), esteem (e.g. competence and recognition), and self-actualization (to fulfil one’s personal potential, e.g. creativity). A topmost level of self-transcendence (spirituality) is sometimes added. Maslow argues that as lower needs are met, individuals seek to satisfy higher needs. He developed the model as a reaction against ... ...

Access to the complete content on Oxford Reference requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can''t find the answer there, please contact us.