Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD REFERENCE ( (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2013. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single entry from a reference work in OR for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 19 October 2019


A Dictionary of Marketing

Charles Doyle

A formal business discipline that originated in the USA. It was first taught as a separate business subject at the turn of the 20th century in several Midwestern universities. As a business discipline, it is seen to have passed through four phases: the era of production, in which marketing was constrained only by limitation on production (up to the 1930s); the era of sales, in which the marketing pushed whatever the company produced (up to the 1950s); and, from the 1960s, the era of the customer, in which the customer was placed at the centre of all marketing activities. In the 21st century marketing is entering the interactive age, with high levels of networking, massive choice, and content sharing and acquisition.... ...

Access to the complete content on Oxford Reference requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can''t find the answer there, please contact us.