Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD REFERENCE ( (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2013. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single entry from a reference work in OR for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 06 June 2020

Zand (Zend) 

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity
Oktor SkjærvøOktor Skjærvø

Term denoting the Middle *Persian (Pahlavi) translations with commentary of the *Avestan texts, commonly in the expression ‘Avesta and Zand’. The original meaning of Zand may have been ‘knowledge’ or something similar. In the manuscripts the Avestan text and its Zand alternate, although in editions they are usually treated as individual texts. The Zand represents the oral traditional understanding of the Avesta, and developed over centuries before it was written down. It is therefore not entirely faithful to the original text of the Avesta, since the meaning of many words had been lost and the grammar of Avestan and Middle Persian is totally different. Nevertheless, many correct Avestan meanings and grammatical forms have been preserved in the Zand. In the ... ...

Access to the complete content on Oxford Reference requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can''t find the answer there, please contact us.