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date: 06 June 2020

Zand (Zend) 

Source:
The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity
Author(s):
Oktor SkjærvøOktor Skjærvø

Term denoting the Middle *Persian (Pahlavi) translations with commentary of the *Avestan texts, commonly in the expression ‘Avesta and Zand’. The original meaning of Zand may have been ‘knowledge’ or something similar. In the manuscripts the Avestan text and its Zand alternate, although in editions they are usually treated as individual texts. The Zand represents the oral traditional understanding of the Avesta, and developed over centuries before it was written down. It is therefore not entirely faithful to the original text of the Avesta, since the meaning of many words had been lost and the grammar of Avestan and Middle Persian is totally different. Nevertheless, many correct Avestan meanings and grammatical forms have been preserved in the Zand. In the ... ...

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