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date: 05 October 2022

stoneware or (German) Steinzeug or (French) grès, 

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Gordon Campbell

Pottery made of clay and a fusible stone (usually feldspar) fired at high temperatures to achieve vitrification of the stone (but not the clay). Stoneware is non-porous, and glazing is added only for decorative effect. Stoneware was produced in ancient China, but the technique seems to have been reinvented in the twelfth century in the Rhineland, which remained the principal centre of production until the late seventeenth century, after which it was made in England (Nottinghamshire and Staffordshire) and the Netherlands (Delft). Early modern Rhenish stoneware, which was produced in Cologne, Raeren (near Aachen in what is now Belgium), and Siegburg, was usually covered with a salt glaze: salt (sodium chloride) was thrown into the heated kiln, whereupon the chlorine evaporated and the sodium combined with the silicates in the pot to form a glaze with a pitted surface. Sixteenth-century Siegburg stoneware was usually white, and typically took the form of ... ...

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