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date: 07 December 2022


The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World
David McCreeryDavid McCreery

Work—what someone does for a living—may involve the direct transformation of nature, for example, the activities of farmers or artisans. Or the linkages may be more indirect, such as what doctors or lawyers do, yielding wages or a salary that allow the purchase of needed or desired goods. Rather than attempting to catalog the many variations of human labor, this article will instead focus on the social relations of production: the historical relations into which people enter in the process of material and intellectual production, of transforming nature into uses and commodities.... ...

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