You are looking at 1-20 of 54 entries  for:

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology x
  • All: public policy x
clear all

View:

Public Policy

Public Policy   Reference library

Sophia Labadi, Patty Gerstenblith, Patrick J. O’Keefe, and Sophia Labadi

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
9,808 words

... Policy Introduction United States Laws Laws in Other Countries Conventions Charters Public Policy: Introduction The adoption of international legal texts and the creation of international organizations, nascent in the first decades of the twentieth century as highlighted by the 1931 Athens Charter on the conservation of historic monuments, accelerated after the Second World War. Created in 1945, the United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has had a key role in drafting “conventions”—defined as “a legally binding...

Archaeological Heritage Administration

Archaeological Heritage Administration   Reference library

Laurajane Smith

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,123 words

...Heritage Administration The development of Western national policy and legislation for the protection of heritage owes much to the influences of the disciplines of archaeology, architecture, and art history. Archaeologists and architects in particular lobbied for the development of public policy and legal codes to protect heritage during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Although Sweden, in 1666, was the first Western country to enact legislation, legislation was not developed in many European counties until the nineteenth century, while the...

Education in Archaeology

Education in Archaeology   Reference library

George Michaels, Edward Friedman, Phyllis Messenger, and Don Henson

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,518 words

...to insist on public education in developer-funded projects, but the new “Planning Policy Statement 5” does recognize the need to address public interest in archaeology and may well lead to an increase in public education work. Professional organizations, including the Society for Historic Archaeology, the American Anthropological Association, and the Society for American Archaeology (SAA) in the United States, and the Council for British Archaeology (CBA) and the Institute for Archaeologists in the United Kingdom, are addressing public education issues...

On-Site Public Interpretation

On-Site Public Interpretation   Reference library

John H. Jameson

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,752 words

...and purposes for site commemoration and treatment. The nature of the reality of multiculturalism in any one country or region affects public policies and attitudes about inclusive heritage interpretation and where to focus the discussions; that is, what are the messages, and to whom are the message directed? Fundamental Questions. In our deliberations regarding who owns the past and what constitutes inclusive public interpretation, we can couch our discussions within the framework of attempting to answer some fundamental questions. While present and...

Museums and Collecting

Museums and Collecting   Reference library

Angela M. H. Schuster

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
772 words

...and artistic achievement, museums have played an important role in both scholarly research and public education. The means by which such institutions have built their collections, however, are undergoing dramatic change, brought about by legislation drafted to protect the cultural patrimony of signatory nations and the heritage of indigenous peoples. As a result, museums in the United States and abroad are being forced to reconsider their acquisitions policies. Most of the world’s great museums built their collections of ancient art and ethnographic material...

Development, Economic

Development, Economic   Reference library

Kathryn Lafrenz Samuels

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,680 words

...within these private finance arrangements. However, the movement in the private sector toward safeguarding natural and cultural heritage raises new questions about the role of archaeological and heritage resources in the corporate social responsibility movement. [ See also Public Policy ; Tourism . ] Cernea, Michael . Cultural Heritage and Development: A Framework for Action in the Middle East and North Africa , 2001. Crosby, Andrew . “Archaeology and Vanua Development in Fiji.” World Archaeology 34 (2002): 363–378. Ferguson, James . The...

Politics of the Past

Politics of the Past   Reference library

Laurajane Smith

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
894 words

...psychological reinforcement of archaeological pronouncements as such materiality helps render the ephemeral past material and somehow “real.” In addition, archaeologists often play a central role in the management of material culture form the past, often defined within public discourse and policy as “heritage.” Archaeological control over heritage items through cultural resource management connects archaeology to heritage and the idea of an inherited past, thus linking archaeology to the identity claims made on appeals to heritage and inheritance. Archaeological...

Museums, Public Interpretation within

Museums, Public Interpretation within   Reference library

Alex W. Barker

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,057 words

...Principle, Policy and Practice , 2004. An edited collection of essays examining repatriation issues internationally. Karp, Ivan , and Steven D. Lavine , eds. Exhibiting Cultures: The Poetics and Politics of Museum Display , 1991. A classic work on museum representation, including a provocative essay by Stephen Greenblatt on the essential qualities of an exhibition. Kohlstedt, Sally Gregory . The Origins of Natural Science in America: The Essays of George Brown Goode , 1991. McManus, Paulette M. , ed. Archaeological Displays and the Public: Museology...

Waste Management

Waste Management   Reference library

William Rathje

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,071 words

...for weight and volume. Additional studies record the moisture content of artifacts and the concentrations of hazards such as heavy metals and complex organic compounds. Garbage Project digs at fifteen landfills throughout North America have made an impact on how policy planners and the public perceive what is filling landfills and what happens to buried discards over time. What Is in Landfills? Before landfill digs, interview surveys indicated that many people thought that styrofoam, fast-food packaging, and disposable diapers filled up the most landfill...

Preventive Archaeology

Preventive Archaeology   Reference library

Nathan Schlanger

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,500 words

...involving professionals, policy makers, and the wider public. These principles are further developed in the highly influential Council of Europe’s Malta (or Valetta) Convention (1992; see Willems, 2007). Given the threats posed to the underground heritage by development schemes, the convention calls for the integration of relevant scientific measures for detecting and assessing these archaeological remains (including their eventual excavation, documentation, or preservation in situ) within broader territorial planning policies. Accordingly, it is up to...

Reburial and Repatriation

Reburial and Repatriation   Reference library

Cressida Fforde

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,757 words

...manage the human remains they house—in the adoption of repatriation policies, curation practices, or reexamination of decisions about whether or not to display remains to the public. Indigenous forums at the United Nations have deliberated on the repatriation issue since at least 1985, and it is specifically addressed in Article 12.1 of the UN Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (2007). In Australia, museums and professional organizations began to develop relevant policies in the early 1990s. Based on previous work in this area, which provided...

Intellectual Property Rights

Intellectual Property Rights   Reference library

George P. Nicholas

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,285 words

...by archaeologists, heritage practitioners, descendant communities, and policy makers. Achieving a clearer understanding of how and why concerns over intellectual property arise has great relevance to members of descendant communities whose cultural patrimony has often been appropriated and commodified; to archaeology and other heritage-based disciplines that seek to identify and understand the nature and value of tangible and intangible heritage within cultural systems; and to a public that is constantly incorporating elements of world cultures, past and...

Rome

Rome   Reference library

Chris Scarre

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,418 words

...grain from Egypt, which was distributed free of charge to the urban poor. The pattern of imperial building set by Augustus was followed by his successors. The policy was a mixture of public service and state propaganda. Thus the Colosseum built by Vespasian ( ad 69–AD 79) was both a massive auditorium for popular entertainment and a stage set in which the emperor could appear in his proper public setting, surrounded by senators, knights, and common people, each in their allotted tiers of seating. The later emperors did depart from Augustus’s precedent in...

Archaeology in the Contemporary World

Archaeology in the Contemporary World   Reference library

Cornelius Holtorf

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,435 words

...ancient sites and artifacts. Most archaeologists are at least some of their time engaged in these activities, irrespective of whether they make their living in private archaeological companies, in public service heritage management or museums, or in a research or teaching institution. In many countries, including for example the United Kingdom and Denmark, public service archaeology has a long tradition of cooperating with local volunteers and amateurs. There is however still a lot of status attached to archaeologists working at universities and those dealing...

New Zealand

New Zealand   Reference library

Tim Thomas

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,763 words

...art recording project. Nevertheless, government policies and public opinions have tended to value development over heritage preservation, making Maori and archaeologists common advocates for the cultural value of New Zealand prehistory. Relations between Maori and archaeologists have not been as strained as in other colonial contexts (e.g., Australia, the United States), though there have been disputes over human remains and artifacts held by museums. Cultural shifts since the 1950s have seen renewed public interest in colonial history and the emergence of...

International Organizations

International Organizations   Reference library

Sophia Labadi

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,593 words

...in the cultural field, as well as public funding for culture. The third axis is direct assistance to governments to enhance their governance and management capacities through comprehensive regional programs and pilot projects. This includes in particular the Regional Program on Cultural and Natural Heritage in South East Europe (RPSEE), launched in 2003 , to work with countries at the border of the European Union (such as Serbia, Croatia or Bosnia, and Herzegovina) to develop or reinforce institutions and policies on cultural heritage safeguarding, to...

Vandalism

Vandalism   Reference library

Morag M. Kersel

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,665 words

...Tubb , eds. Archaeology, Cultural Heritage, and the Antiquities Trade , 2006. Brooks, Nick . UN Personnel Vandalize Archaeological Sites . http://nickbrooks.wordpress.com/2007/12/18/vandalised-rockshteler-lajuad/ . Chokhani, P. “Destruction on Public Lands: A Closer Look at Vandalism.” Our Public Lands 29 (1979): 9–11. Colwell-Chanthaphon, Chip . “Dismembering/Disremembering the Buddhas. Renderings on the Internet during the Afghan Purge of the Past.” Journal of Social Archaeology 3, no. 1 (2003): 75–98. Fagan, Brian . “Black Day at Slack...

Indigenous Rights

Indigenous Rights   Reference library

Susan McIntyre-Tamwoy

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,641 words

...heritage practice and myriad private, public-sector, and nongovernmental organization roles. Ancestral Remains, Collateral Damage, and the Growth of Collaborative Approaches. While most other debates on indigenous rights and ethical issues in archaeology have stayed quietly within the cloister, the often-heated debates over the fate of ancestral remains, the legislation that governs these, the role of scientific enquiry, the future of archaeology, and issues of ethics and ownership have spilled over into the public domain: for example, the debates over...

Turkey

Turkey   Reference library

Cigdem Atakuman

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,456 words

...endeavor by the religiously oriented state authorities, has since been left in a limbo struggling to justify its existence between conflicting identity politics and economic expansion policies. Ultimately, archaeology in Turkey has been limited to the space allowed by the restrictive state policies, which so far have excluded much-needed programs for heritage management, public engagement, education, and debate within the globalizing Turkish society that nurtures a wide diversity of ideologies and identities. Within this context, an academic attachment to an...

Renfrew, Colin

Renfrew, Colin (1937)   Reference library

Anthony F. Harding

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
716 words

...has received numerous international awards and prizes, including the 2003 Latsis Prize of the European Science Foundation and the 2004 Balzan Prize. [ See also Cognitive Archaeology ; Genetics in Archaeology ; Illicit Antiquities Trade ; Looting ; Processual Theory ; Public Policy: Conventions . ] Renfrew, Colin . Archaeology and Language. The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins , 1987. Renfrew, Colin . The Emergence of Civilisation. The Cyclades and the Aegean in the Third Millennium B.C. , 1972. Renfrew, Colin . Figuring It Out: The Parallel...

View: