Update

You are looking at 1-20 of 3,314 entries  for:

  • All: ontology x
clear all

View:

Overview

ontology

The branch of metaphysics dealing with the nature of being. Recorded from the early 18th century, the word comes from modern Latin ontologia, from Greek ōn, ont− ‘being’, + the suffix ...

ontology

ontology   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
34 words

... (in logic) the formal specification of the terms and concepts used in a field or domain of knowledge providing definitions of those terms and of the relationships between them. —ontological adj. ; —ontologically ...

ontology

ontology   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
36 words

... Branch of philosophy concerned with the nature of existence. The question whether and in what sense a language system or its elements exist is therefore an ontological question, or concerns the ‘ontology of’...

ontology

ontology   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
16 words

... Branch of metaphysics that studies the basic nature of things; the essence of ‘being’...

ontology

ontology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2023

... The study of being. Ontology is made up of theories about knowledge. Each discipline has its own ontology; for example economists tend to think about labour in terms of wages and human capital; geographers typically see labour location as a result of worker attachments to complex social institutions and networks. See Boschma and Martin (2007) J. Econ. Geog. 7, 5 on ontology for evolutionary economic geography. http://data.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/ontology UK Ordnance Survey ontologies...

ontology

ontology   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007

... A branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of the fundamental things which exist in...

ontology

ontology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
213 words

...are ontological distinctions. Advancing the theory of ontological relativity, the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis is that different languages carve up the world differently and have different in-built ontologies, so that some concepts may not be translatable . Realists deny ontological validity to things which they do not regard as part of the external, objective world. For realists, there is an ontological bond between the sign vehicle and what it signifies in representational media which are both indexical and iconic (such as photography, film , and...

ontology

ontology   Quick reference

Morwenna Griffiths

A Dictionary of Education (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
125 words

... The study and understanding of what exists, or what there is. Ontology addresses the question of the nature of reality. For instance, reality can be taken to be made up only of facts about the material world, as in physics, or of social constructions (or meanings), such as ‘family’ or ‘democracy’, which depend on human understanding, as in sociology. In this sense, ontological questions are important in education research . Answers to questions of reality constrain and underpin theories of knowledge ( epistemology ) and theories of how knowledge can...

ontology

ontology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Biology (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
80 words

...ontology A specification of the assumptions, terms, or concepts underlying a particular field of knowledge. For example, the Gene Ontology Consortium is an international collaboration between various databases in the field of genomics to standardize terminology used by researchers. It has developed three ontologies, each containing a controlled vocabulary for naming, respectively, cellular components, biological processes, and molecular functions. Standardization of terms in this way is vital for efficient searching of databases, particularly for devising and...

Ontology

Ontology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Ontology The study of what is the form and nature of reality and what can be known about it. 420 The set of things whose existence is acknowledged by a particular theory or system of thought; it is in this sense that some experts speak of the ontology of a theory. The natural sciences embody implicit ontological schemes that cannot be wholly justified on purely empirical grounds and can engender theoretical perplexities. 223 See also epistemology . ...

ontology

ontology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
139 words

... Any way of understanding the world, or some part of it, must make assumptions (which may be implicit or explicit) about what kinds of things do or can exist in that domain, and what might be their conditions of existence, relations of dependency, and so on. Such an inventory of kinds of being and their relations is an ontology. In this sense, each special science, including sociology, may be said to have its own ontology (for example, persons, institutions, relations, norms, practices, structures, roles, or whatever, depending on the particular...

ontology

ontology   Quick reference

Jonathan Joseph

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
212 words

... The theory or philosophy of being. In contrast to epistemology —or theory of knowledge—ontology is concerned with what exists and what should be considered real. Called ‘first philosophy’ by Aristotle, ontology is considered the basis of metaphysics or the real nature of things. Ontological questions include those that ask of the nature of these things. Are they independent of our knowledge? Are such things matter or forms? What are their main characteristics, features, or causes? One branch of philosophy which includes hermeneutics , phenomenology ,...

ontology

ontology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Computer Science (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

... A description of some concepts and their relationships, for the purpose of defining the ideas sufficiently to allow a computer to represent them and reason about them. Thus an agent ’s ontology specifies the basic building blocks of knowledge that defines what it can perceive and reason about. This is a kind of model and, as such, is very useful to define what agents or learning programs can know and what they can communicate. Ontologies are usually compiled for a particular ‘domain’, e.g. the domains of wind engineering, medical diagnosis, or office...

ontology

ontology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
120 words

... The theory, in philosophical terms, of the existence of things, posing fundamental questions concerning the very nature of being itself. In relation to understanding the place of sport in society, the ontological questions are: is sport simply a reflection of whatever society is said to be? Or does—or can—sport create the social anew, or at least elements of the wider society? These are versions of the structure–agency debate that has dominated sociocultural studies, and particularly sociological approaches such as the British sociologist Anthony...

ontology

ontology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Politics
Length:
36 words

...ontology Philosophical term denoting the study of being or becoming. In gender research it refers to the study of gendered identities and subjectivities, to how women and men come to be and are what they...

ontology

ontology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
594 words

...the ontological characteristics of these, albeit in non-metaphysical ways that attend to their social construction rather than a priori character. More generally, most human geographers have accepted that the biophysical world is ontologically different and distinct from the social world made by people (though the existence of this supposed ontological divide has recently been questioned). This broad consensus notwithstanding, human geographers divide between those whose ontology is largely Cartesian ( see Cartesianism ), and those whose ontology is...

ontology

ontology ([Th])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
71 words

... [Th] A branch of philosophy concerned with what exists, its nature, character, and meaning. Much Anglo‐American archaeological thought in the late 20th century focused on epistemology and methodology, but since the early 1990s some archaeologists have turned to consider instead the very character of archaeological materials. Such archaeological ontology considers the character of material culture and social practice, and asks what archaeologists are really attempting to interpret or...

ontology

ontology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... In philosophy, the theory of the existence of things—at its most basic, or fundamental, it seeks to answer the question why there is something rather than nothing. It does not examine the existence of particular things; its focus is the more general level of the possibility and actuality of anything existing at all. In the twentieth century , the most influential account of ontology was given by Martin Heidegger , in his extensive writings on the...

ontology

ontology   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
65 words

... (from Gk τὸ ὄν ‎, stem ὀντ ‎-, ‘that which is’; λόγος ‎, ‘discourse’) The branch of metaphysics which deals with being in general rather than this or that being. It investigates the nature of existence as such and the sense in which different things can be said to be. ‘Ontology’ also sometimes signifies the underlying presumptions about existence of any given world-view or conceptual...

ontology

ontology   Reference library

E. J. Lowe

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
639 words

...a derivative sense, it is used to refer to the set of things whose existence is acknowledged by a particular theory or system of thought: it is in this sense that one speaks of ‘the’ ontology of a theory, or of a metaphysical system as having such-and-such an ontology (for example, an ontology of events, or of material substances). In a separate, technical sense the term ‘ontology’ is the official name of a logistical system created by the Polish logician Stanisław Leśniewski —a system similar in scope to modern predicate logic and developed by him in...

ontology

ontology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
211 words

... Derived from the Greek word for being, but a 17th-century coinage for the branch of metaphysics that concerns itself with what exists. Apart from the ontological argument itself there have existed many a priori arguments that the world must contain things of one kind or another: simple things, unextended things, eternal substances, necessary beings, and so on. Such arguments often depend upon some version of the principle of sufficient reason . Kant is the greatest opponent of the view that unaided reason can tell us in detail what kinds of...

View: