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Overview

collateral intrusion

Subject: Law

The unintentional gathering of intelligence material with intended material e.g. background conversation recorded with intended speech.

collateral intrusion

collateral intrusion   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Law Enforcement (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Law
Length:
18 words

... intrusion The unintentional gathering of intelligence material with intended material e.g. background conversation recorded with intended...

collateral intrusion

collateral intrusion  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
The unintentional gathering of intelligence material with intended material e.g. background conversation recorded with intended speech.
Gortyn

Gortyn   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
2,702 words
Illustration(s):
1

...In the absence of children came the brothers of the deceased and then the descendants of these brothers; then the sisters of the deceased and their descendants. In the absence of children, brothers, and sisters came distant collateral relatives (we do not know to what degree of relation); finally, in the absence of collateral relatives, the right to succeed was given to those belonging to the klaros , a term whose meaning is very much disputed. Immediately after the regulations on inheritance come (logically) regulations on the division of the estate...

Ostrogoths

Ostrogoths   Reference library

Peter Heather

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... Sicily ) and especially from 536 when Belisarius’ army moved into Italy proper. The Roman population in the struggles which followed was basically neutral. Both sides attempted to constrain its loyalty, and, as the violence became more pronounced towards the war’s climax, much collateral damage was inflicted on Italo-Roman interests by both parties. In the end, Justinian’s (eventually) implacable determination to end the war by victory rather than through negotiation generated a series of punishing campaigns which, after the Byzantine victories at Busta...

Kingship

Kingship   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...the king's control in order to protect the kingdom. The devolution of the kingdom reveals a coexistence of patrimonial customs and divine decision-making. On the one hand, succession is established by blood line, determined successively by primogeniture, masculinity, and collateral lineage. The firstborn may die, and the eldest surviving sibling take the crown, in the manner of Merenptah, thirteenth son of Ramesses II. A royal daughter may become the depository of monarchic function until her marriage legalizes the royal status of the pretender to the...

Terror, War on

Terror, War on   Reference library

Robert S. Singh

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and the new administration increasingly solved the problem by extrajudicial assassinations. In particular, a substantial increase in drone strikes in Afghanistan and Pakistan, as well as in Yemen and Somalia, helped to eliminate large numbers of “militants,” even at the cost of collateral damage and lost information about their terror networks. Far from abandoning the policies of his predecessor, Obama stood instead charged by his critics—many of whom were formerly enthusiastic supporters—with institutionalizing them and establishing a “new normal.” Policies and...

Commerce and Trade

Commerce and Trade   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
4,899 words

...out over shorter distances, such as shipments of hops and madder from the United Provinces to England, Piedmontese silk to Lyon, or manufactured products, particularly textiles. Europe played two roles in worldwide commerce: decisive in the regions bordering the Atlantic, but collateral in Asia. Produce from land and industry filled the holds of ships dispatched to America. From Africa, Europeans organized the slave trade and the development of slave plantations, and it functioned in return as the principal zone of consumption for precious metals from Peru and...

Electronic Monitoring Around the World

Electronic Monitoring Around the World   Reference library

Mike Nellis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of International Criminology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
11,011 words

...compared to (approximately) 2 million people in prison and 5 million on some kind of postrelease, pretrial, and community supervision. The root explanation for this lies in the United States’ punitive culture, the vast political indifference to social inequality, and the collateral costs of mass incarceration, on which EM has had negligible impact. Extreme punitiveness has also ensured that EM itself has often taken harsh forms, both restrictive regimes, and in some states lifelong tracking of released sex offenders. Unsurprisingly, punitive excess in EM...

Capital Punishment, Closure, and Media

Capital Punishment, Closure, and Media   Reference library

Jody Madeira

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Crime, Media, and Popular Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
7,285 words

...his arrest. As family member Paul Howell stated, McVeigh, even though he knew that he was getting the death sentence, he was defiant all the way up to the point where it actually happened, okay? He would speak out to the media. He would tell the families to grow up; it’s collateral damage that we killed your kids, you know. And everything that he did was doing nothing but hurting the family members here in Oklahoma. So the only way for us to have any kind of peace was to execute this man. Now on Nichols, Nichols is a little different because since he’s...

Law

Law   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
14,305 words

...the court heard for the first time in 1550 a case brought upon a policy of marine insurance, and by 1600 it exercised jurisdiction involving the following: • collision at sea • spoil (pillaging of vessels) • piracy (and collateral matters) • mercantile, shipping, and maritime-related commercial matters • shipwreck (and collateral matters) • contempt of the Admiral (and his court) • querelae (ex parte proceedings to found a claim for letters of reprisal against foreigners) • commissions to examine ships and witnesses • arbitration (of...

Artist

Artist   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
9,305 words
Illustration(s):
2

...resident-controlled ownership of space, including condominiums, cooperatives, nonprofit corporations, limited partnerships, and contractual agreements. In the Boston case, the Artists Foundation actually became the bridge between the artist and the space, using its resources as collateral for artists to become owners. In the 1980s, the American Council for the Arts conducted a study to determine the kinds and amounts of health insurance held by artists. This study served as background for the National Endowment for the Arts, which has since convened a...

Artist

Artist   Reference library

Catherine M. Soussloff and Joan Jeffri

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
10,280 words
Illustration(s):
2

...resident-controlled ownership of space, including condominiums, cooperatives, nonprofit corporations, limited partnerships, and contractual agreements. In the Boston case, the Artists Foundation actually became the bridge between the artist and the space, using its resources as collateral for artists to become owners. In the 1980s, the American Council for the Arts conducted a study to determine the kinds and amounts of health insurance held by artists. This study served as background for the National Endowment for the Arts, which has since convened a...

Histories and Theories in Childhood Studies

Histories and Theories in Childhood Studies   Reference library

Lisa Farley and Debbie Sonu

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Curriculum Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
10,460 words

...practices and justifications emerge. Indeed, childhood scholars note how children bear asymmetrical degrees of precarity; those who endure pain, death, war, poverty, and other insecurities of life become extensions of an unequal distribution that constructs their lives as collateral to an unjust rationality. In their work on Black boyhood, Michael Dumas and Joseph Nelson ( 2016 ) show how fears and anxieties tied to Black manhood have constrained Black boyhood to the extent that it becomes unimagined and unimaginable on its own terms. The lack of freedom...

Ezekiel

Ezekiel   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,981 words
Illustration(s):
1

...punishment is exile; the people will be scattered among the nations (e.g., 5:10 , 12 ; 6:8 ; 12:14–15 ; 20:23 ; 22:15 ). In quoting opponents, the book admits that there were other possible explanations of the exile. One explanation is that the people were essentially collateral damage, suffering for someone else's sins ( Ezek 18:2 ; compare Exod 20:5 ; 34:7 ; Num 14:18 ; Deut 5:9 ; 31:27–30 ). This argument is made elsewhere in the Bible where the sins of Manasseh are held to be the cause of the exile ( 2 Kgs 23:26–27 ; 24:1–4 ; Jer 15:4 )....

Responding to Refugee and Humanitarian Crises

Responding to Refugee and Humanitarian Crises   Reference library

Daniel Warner and Georg von Kalckreuth

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
12,979 words

...the Point: The Real Media Impact on Conflict Management is Invisible and Indirect. Journal of Peace Research 37 (2), 131–43. Leebaw, B. (2007) The Politics of Impartiality: Human Rights and Humanitarianism. Perspectives on Politics 5 (2), 223–38. Lischer, S.K. (2003) Collateral Damage: Humanitarian Action as a Cause of Conflict. International Security 28 (1), 79–109. Lischer, S.K. (2005) Dangerous Sanctuaries: Refugee Camps, Civil War, and the Dilemmas of Humanitarian Aid . Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Loescher, G. (2001) The UNHCR and World...

Real Property Tax in Local Public Finance

Real Property Tax in Local Public Finance   Reference library

Yilin Hou

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Public Administration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,476 words

...practice was extended to Hong Kong when it was under British rule; it remains in use there. Under China’s public land ownership, the 1980s Economic Reform Program gave rise to a separate “land use right,” which consists of the right to “occupy, use, benefit from, and use as collateral” land that has been rented from government. This “use right” is a special form of ownership almost equal to owning the land right ( Zhang, 1998 ). By this argument, RPT works generically in both types of land right systems. The Worst Tax or the Best Tax? At the turn of the ...

A Māori Approach to Environmental Economics: Te ao tūroa, te ao hurihuri, te ao mārama—The Old World, a Changing World, a World of Light

A Māori Approach to Environmental Economics: Te ao tūroa, te ao hurihuri, te ao mārama—The Old World, a Changing World, a World of Light   Reference library

Matthew Rout, Shaun Awatere, Jason Mika, John Reid, and Matthew Roskruge

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Environmental Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Environment
Length:
12,285 words

...and it is reduced by parasitic negative interactions that diminish wealth, health, and well-being of both humans and nonhumans ( Reid & Rout, 2018 ). While mana tangata can be viewed as the direct currency, the other forms of mana, particularly mana whenua, act as a form of collateral in these transactions. Exploratory Framework Institutional economics is the guiding framework used to explore a Māori approach to environmental economics. As a discipline, environmental economics “is steeped in standard neoclassical theories” ( Cordato, 2004 , p. 3), with a...

Family

Family   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
25,201 words
Illustration(s):
6

...doctrine maintains that the spouses are separated ipso iure . The consequence of liʿān is that only maternal filiation is established. Obligations between Agnatic and Uterine Relatives. Hanafis follow the two criteria of proximity ( qurb ) and descendant, ascendant or collateral lines of kindred ( ğuziyya ). The basic condition is that relatives providing maintenance should be wealthy and the one claiming it poor, except wife and minor children, who have the right to maintenance even if the husband/father is poor. However, Hanafi scholars diverge in...

Property

Property   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
35,301 words
Illustration(s):
3

...the land. The greatest interest that could be held was known as the estate in fee simple, but lesser interests could be carved out of this: an estate for life, an estate in fee tail (where the land could only be inherited by the grantee's children, and not by his or her collateral relatives), an estate pur auter vie (or per autre vie: where land was held for the life of some other person), and so on. The doctrine of estates provided great flexibility, and wealthy landholders were able to exploit this in order to create complex settlements of their...

Banking—History

Banking—History   Reference library

Linsun CHENG

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...by piaohao and qianzhuang ; these were extended based on a customer’s business aptitude and reputation. The necessity to provide guaranty for a loan was seen as reflecting unfavorably on a person’s credit standing; only people whose credit was in question had to provide collateral to receive a loan from a bank. A merchant with good credit could easily get a loan without any material guaranty; on the other hand, a debtor would make every effort to clear his debt on time. This manner of dealing on the basis of mutual trust was very common in the Chinese...

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