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Glass

Glass   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
11,684 words
Illustration(s):
3

...in a variety of forms and decorated using a wide range of techniques from cutting to decorative inclusions. A. Pellatt : Curiosities of Glassmaking (London, 1849) F. Buckley : ‘Old Glass Lamps and Candlesticks’, Country Life (April 1929), pp. 492–4; (May 1929), pp. 710–12 G. M. Crowfoot and D. B. Harden : ‘ Early Byzantine and Later Glass Lamps ’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology , xvii (1931), pp. 196–208 P. Hollister : The Encyclopedia of Glass Paperweights (New York, 1969) B. Morris : Victorian Table Glass and Ornaments (London, 1978) R. Grover ...

Technical examination

Technical examination  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Examination of a work of art by technical means; its aims are, first, to identify the raw materials used and, where appropriate, their geographic source or provenance; second, to investigate ...
Collagraph

Collagraph  

Reference type:
Overview Page
[collage intaglio; collagraphy].Printmaking technique in which the plate is constructed of adhered elements. A collagraph plate can be inked in both relief and intaglio, and an embossed impression ...
Flock and tinsel prints

Flock and tinsel prints  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Collective term for a type of woodcut to which powdered wool (flock) or tinsel (small fragments of metal) was applied. Such prints are rare. The technique was developed to imitate ...
Timber structure

Timber structure  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Timber has played a unique role in both high-style and vernacular historic buildings. Its combination of strength in compression and especially in tension was unmatched by any other material until ...
Etching, soft-ground

Etching, soft-ground  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Intaglio printmaking technique in which a particularly soft ground is used; the term is also applied to the type of print made by such a process.Soft ground is a ...
Aux trois crayons

Aux trois crayons  

Reference type:
Overview Page
[Fr.: ‘with three chalks’].Term applied to a drawing in black, red and white chalks, often carried out on tinted paper; the technique was particularly employed by Antoine Watteau (1684–1721) ...
Etching, lift-ground

Etching, lift-ground  

Reference type:
Overview Page
[sugarbite or sugar-lift aquatint].Intaglio printmaking technique and type of print made by such a process. The design is drawn on to an intaglio plate with a pen or brush ...
Lime secco

Lime secco  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Wall painting technique that is a variant of Fresco. The painting is executed with fresco pigments that have been mixed into a paste with water and lime. On drying they ...
Electrography

Electrography  

Reference type:
Overview Page
[electrophotography; xerography].Term for processes involving the interaction of light and electricity to produce images and for the production of original works of art by these processes. Since ...
Block

Block  

Reference type:
Overview Page
In printing, a solid material, usually wood (rather than a metal plate), which can be engraved or cut and used to print on to a surface.
Pasteprints

Pasteprints  

Reference type:
Overview Page
[Ger. Teigdrucke; Fr. empreintes en pâte].Rare category of small low relief images produced by covering a sheet of paper with one or more layers of material (referred to as ...
Artificial stone

Artificial stone  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Material most commonly used as a cheaper alternative to stone. Occasionally, its special properties make it a preferred but more expensive choice to stone. In its simplest form, artificial stone ...
Experimental film

Experimental film  

Reference type:
Overview Page
[avant-garde; fine art film].Term referring to Motion picture films that are distinguished by their concern to analyse and extend the medium, not only by means of new technology or ...
Resist

Resist  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Material such as wax or varnish used to cover those parts of a surface (e.g. cloth, pottery or a metal printmaking plate) that are not meant to be exposed to ...
Blanching of paint

Blanching of paint  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Cloudy discoloration of an oil paint film caused by the breakdown of the binding medium or the pigment. The effect may occur within the film or on the surface below ...
Dead colouring

Dead colouring  

Reference type:
Overview Page
[laying in].Term used in oil painting to describe the first application of paint or underpainting in monochrome or reduced colour on top of the ground and underdrawing. This fixes ...
Pontata

Pontata  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Term for the section of a fresco painted in a single day. Unlike giornate (see Giornata), which follow the outlines of the composition and are thus irregular in shape, pontate ...
Grangerize

Grangerize  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Term applied in its strictest sense to the practice that became fashionable in England towards the end of the 18th century of collecting portrait prints and adding them as extra ...
Vernis Martin

Vernis Martin  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Generic term used for all types of japanning produced in France in the 18th century. It takes its name from the production of the brothers Guillaume Martin (d1749) and Etienne-Simon ...

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