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## zero-sum game

A situation in which gains to one group or individual can occur only at the expense of losses to another group or individual.

## zero sum game Reference library

### The Handbook of International Financial Terms

... sum game . A situation where the winning participants can only gain at the expense of the others involved ( cf. positive sum game...

##
zero-sum game
*n.*
Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

...-sum game n. In game theory , a game in which the sum of the players’ payoffs is equal to zero in every outcome of the game. Two-person zero-sum games are strictly competitive games , in which the players’ interests are directly opposed, one player’s gain invariably being equal to the other’s loss. See also minimax theorem . Compare mixed-motive game...

## zero-sum game Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Geography (6 ed.)

...-sum game A formal game whereby, on choosing a particular strategy, one competitor’s gain is his opponent’s loss. Belief in a zero-sum game has been described as an antagonistic belief about social relations in the struggle for limited resources. According to the Columbia Business School site, trade is not a zero-sum game; have a look at...

## Zero-Sum Game Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

...Zero-Sum Game A situation in which one participant can “gain” only at the expense of or to the detriment of another. ...

## zero-sum game Reference library

### Australian Law Dictionary (3 ed.)

...zero-sum game In economics and game theory, a competitive situation in which one party’s gain is another’s loss, such that total gains and losses are balanced as between parties, and together equal zero. See also nash equilibrium ; pareto optimality...

## zero-sum game Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

...zero-sum game A game in which the sum of the pay-offs to players is zero for every outcome. In a two-player zero-sum game a positive pay-off for one player implies a negative pay-off (of equal absolute value) for the other player. Zero-sum games represent direct opposition between the interests of the players and are used to model conflict. See also maximin...

## zero-sum game Reference library

### Garner's Modern English Usage (5 ed.)

...-sum game (= a situation in which a gain for one side causes an equal and opposite loss for the other), an economic phrase dating from the early 1940s, is so written. Some writers, misunderstanding the game theory underlying the phrase, and therefore the phrase itself, mistakenly write ⋆ zero-sum gain —a malapropism . Current ratio in print ( zero-sum game vs. ⋆ zero-sum gain ): 206:1 ...

## zero-sum game Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

...zero-sum game A situation in which gains to one group or individual can occur only at the expense of losses to another group or individual. ...

## zero-sum game Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

...-sum game In game theory, an interaction in which the gain of one participant is matched precisely by the loss of others; i.e. the existence of winners implies that of...

## zero-sum game Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

...-sum game A game in which one player’s gain is an equivalent net loss to the other player or players. No overall gain is possible. This contrasts with games in which all players can gain, for example by...

## zero-sum game Quick reference

### A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

...-sum game A contest in which one player’s loss is equal to the other player’s gain. Games may be divided into two classes, zero‐sum and non‐zero‐sum. The class where the sum of the winnings of all the players is the same in all outcomes may be called ‘constant‐sum’. But as pay‐offs can always be mathematically rescaled, it is convenient and normal to call them ‘zero‐sum’. In any change of outcome in a zero‐sum game, the gain of the gainer(s) exactly equals the loss of the loser(s). Most games in the ordinary sense, without selective outside intervention, are...

## zero-sum game Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Sports Studies

...-sum game A game in which the participants determine the distribution of a fixed total of costs or benefits between them. The zero-sum game is anathema to the central principle of sport, and the uncertainty of outcome (or at least score) that is the fundamental attraction of a sporting encounter. Yet cases of such games can be found in sport, when little is at stake in terms of competitive outcomes (such as in ‘dead rubbers’, when a match has to occur even though the main outcome is already resolved), and when contestants engage in match-fixing or collusion:...

##
non-zero-sum game
*n.*
Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

...zero-sum game n . Another name for a mixed-motive game . [So called because the sum of the payoffs to the players is not zero in every outcome of the game...

## two-person zero-sum game Quick reference

### The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (6 ed.)

...two-person zero-sum game A game with two players in which the total payoff is zero, i.e. anything which one player gains is directly at the expense of the other...

## Zero-sum game Reference library

### Brewer's Dictionary of Modern Phrase & Fable (2 ed.)

...-sum game . A game in which the sum of the winnings of all the players is always zero and hence any situation in which an advantage to one participant necessarily leads to a disadvantage to one or more of the others. The expression was introduced by the US economists John von Neumann and Oscar Morgenstern in their influential study Theory of Games and Economic Behavior ( 1944...

## non-zero-sum game

## zero-sum game

## two-person zero-sum game

## Romans Reference library

*Craig C. Hill and Craig C. Hill*

### The Oxford Bible Commentary

...Christianity in such a way that non-Christian Judaism must be negated. Gal 2:21 reveals a great deal about the working of Paul's mind: ‘I do not nullify the grace of God; for if justification comes through the law, then Christ died for nothing.’ In other words, it is a zero-sum game. If God intended to save through Christ, it must have been necessary; therefore, one could not be saved apart from Christ, that is to say, through the regular practice of Jewish religion. The either/or structure of Paul's argument explains an otherwise astonishing fact: were...