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works council

A representative body of employees within a single workplace or enterprise which in most European countries has legal status and cannot be avoided or dissolved by employers. Works councils ...

works council

works council   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Resource Management (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
485 words

...to establish a European works council under EU law. Works councils are not mandatory but must be established in companies above a certain size at the request either of the workforce or, in some cases, of trade unions. Works councillors are elected from amongst employees, following procedures laid down in national legislation, and in most systems, trade unions are allowed to nominate candidates and may provide support to works councillors once they have been elected. The rights, obligations, and activities of works councils are highly variable but there...

works council

works council   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
131 words

...works council A body where representatives of the management and workers of an establishment or a firm meet to discuss matters of mutual interest. These typically exclude wages, but include working conditions , health and safety, and individual or group grievances. Many managements find works councils useful in settling problems before they escalate into industrial disputes . They may also be used as a convenient occasion for briefing workers on the firm’s prospects and profits. Works councils generally do not have the power to make executive decisions,...

European Works Council

European Works Council   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Law (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Law
Length:
219 words

...Works Council ( EWC ) In multinational companies within the European Economic Area (EEA), a council consisting of both employee and management representatives established at European level to inform and consult with employees on transnational issues. The requirement to set up such councils originated from the European Works Council Directive 1994, later revised by Directive 2009/38. The directives apply to undertakings or groups with at least 1,000 employees across member states of the EEA and at least 150 employees in each of two or more of those...

European Works Council

European Works Council   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Resource Management (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
367 words

...European Works Council ( EWC ) A representative body of workers established for the purpose of information-sharing and consultation on transnational issues in multinational companies operating in Europe. Although there are examples of EWCs being established voluntarily, the majority have been created as a result of the European Works Council Directive of 1994 . This required that EWCs be set up in companies operating in the member states of the European Economic Area (i.e. the member states of the EU plus Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway), provided they...

works council

works council noun   Quick reference

New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
34 words
works council

works council noun   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
36 words
works council

works council  

A representative body of employees within a single workplace or enterprise which in most European countries has legal status and cannot be avoided or dissolved by employers. Works councils have long ...
works councils

works councils   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
273 words

...all works councils. First, works councils represent the employees of a particular workplace, not the employees within an industrial sector, or grade, or territorial area. Secondly, works councils represent all workers at a given workplace, regardless of trade union membership: a worker is represented by a works council simply by virtue of being employed at that workplace. Lastly, works councils represent workers collectively: they present the views of ‘the workers’ as one common voice. In many European countries, comprehensive systems of works councils were...

European Works Council

European Works Council  

(EWC)A representative body of workers established for the purpose of information-sharing and consultation on transnational issues in multinational companies operating in Europe. Although there are ...
25 The History of the Book in Switzerland

25 The History of the Book in Switzerland   Reference library

Lukas Erne

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,984 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...8 th century, and the Bibliotheca *Bodmeriana in Cologny near Geneva, founded by *Bodmer , contains a number of outstanding works, including the earliest dated MS ( 1308 ) of Guillaume de Lorris and Jean de Meun’s Roman de la Rose . 2 The early modern period Situated on the borders of Germany and France, on the banks of the Rhine, Basle was ideally placed to become one of Europe’s early centres of book production. The Council of Basle ( 1431–49 ) brought about important traffic in books from abroad, and the foundation of the country’s oldest university...

21 The History of the Book in Ireland

21 The History of the Book in Ireland   Reference library

Niall Ó Ciosáin and Clare Hutton

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,023 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of the works on a hand press. Unfortunately, however, Dolmen was not run on a secure financial basis and did not survive beyond Miller ’s death in 1987 . In the period 1958–64 , following the introduction of new economic policies in the Republic, annual growth shot forward to 4 per cent. *Paperback publishing boomed, making access to a wide range of literature easy and affordable. In a dramatic reversal of cultural policy, the government in the Republic became increasingly helpful to both English-language publishers and authors. The Arts Council (An...

7 The Book as Symbol

7 The Book as Symbol   Reference library

Brian Cummings

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,977 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...The simultaneous combustion of the heretic’s works with the consumption of his body on the stake was a material symbol of the purging of abstract ideas: Jan Hus was burned with his books at the Council of Constance in 1415 , and the same council ordered Wyclif’s bones to be exhumed and burned alongside his writings. Such practices survived the Reformation and transferred into nascent Protestantism: Michael Servetus was burned at Geneva in 1553 with several portions of manuscript and one of his printed works bound around his waist. In the new confessional...

27 The History of the Book in the Iberian Peninsula

27 The History of the Book in the Iberian Peninsula   Reference library

María Luisa López-Vidriero

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,347 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and, through the Jesuits, encouraged a secret press for the English mission and the establishment of another press in the English College at St Omer to produce Counter-Reformation works for distribution among recusants. There were also other reasons for European countries to involve themselves energetically in the market for Spanish books. The consequences of the Council of Trent ( 1545–63 ) were decisive. The Nuevo rezado required the immediate and huge production of liturgical books beyond the capacity of the Spanish presses. Philip II granted the...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

John L. Flood

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,164 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...the earliest known printed botanical illustrations), *chronicles (including Ulrich von Reichenthal ’s History of the Council of Constance , Augsburg, 1483 ; the Chronicle of the Saxons , Mainz, 1492 ; and Koberger’s Latin and German editions of Schedel’s * Nuremberg Chronicle , Nuremberg, 1493 , with 1,809 woodcuts), travel accounts ( *Breydenbach ’s Peregrinatio in Terram Sanctam , Mainz, 1486 ), *herbals , didactic works (Brant’s Narrenschiff , Basle, 1494 ), heroic poems ( Heldenbuch , Strasburg c .1479 ), chivalric romances ( Tristrant ,...

44 The History of the Book in Australia

44 The History of the Book in Australia   Reference library

Ian Morrison

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,163 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

... and 1970s , as income from textbooks gave publishers scope to risk promoting less commercial works—poetry in particular—that they considered culturally important. A precondition for the growth of tertiary education was increasing retention rates in secondary schools. F. W. Cheshire in Melbourne and the Jacaranda Press in Brisbane specialized in secondary-school publishing. Melbourne University Press (which concentrated on non-fiction, including key reference works such as the Australian Dictionary of Biography ) and the University of Queensland Press (which...

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800   Reference library

Andrew Murphy

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,077 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the *rights in certain standard works into a portfolio controlled by its most senior members. A royal grant by James I in 1603 added to this portfolio a further range of works, including books of private prayers, *psalters , psalms, and almanacs. The ‘ *English Stock ’, as it became known, confirmed the prosperity of the Company, although the running of the scheme also had the effect of alienating many among the most junior ranks of the profession, who felt excluded from the profits generated by the staple works that formed the core of the English...

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

Andrew Vlies

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,292 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Triumph, to produce two *newspapers in Hausa (one printed in Ajami). Such *vernacular literature bureaux and state-sponsored initiatives operated at various times across the continent, with varying degrees of success. Others in West Africa included the United Christian Council Literature Bureau in Bo, Sierra Leone ( 1946 ), and the Bureau of Ghana Languages, Accra ( 1951 ). Oxford University Press Nigeria (now University Press plc) opened in Ibadan in 1949 . The Ibadan University Press, the first African university press outside South Africa, followed...

34 The History of the Book in the Baltic States

34 The History of the Book in the Baltic States   Reference library

Jürgen M. Warmbrunn

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,013 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...work in Latvian was most likely printed in Germany in 1525 , but the oldest surviving Latvian printed text is a Catholic catechism printed at Vilnius in 1585 , closely followed by books printed in Königsberg for Latvian evangelical parishes ( 1586–7 ). In 1588 , the Riga town council established the *Riga Printing House , owned by Nicolas Mollyn , who also acted as a bookseller. Following a Swedish initiative, a second *printing office —the Royal Printing House—was established in Riga by J. G. Wilcken , publishing many books in Latvian and Estonian. In...

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus   Reference library

Christine Thomas

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,074 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...whose educational programmes needed grammars and books on poetics, rhetoric, and philosophy as well as polemical works. The most prolific were in Lviv ( 1591–1788 ), headed by the distinguished printer *Slezka , and in Vilnius, established in 1591 . A fourth category of presses was the monastery presses. For Belarusian book culture, the most important was that of the Vilnius Holy Spirit Monastery, and, for Ukrainian works, the press of the Kiev Monastery of the Caves, founded in 1616 . Throughout the 17 th century, this press continued to...

All Is True

All Is True   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,792 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...says he would be glad if she, Cranmer, and Cromwell were dead: he has moved the Council against Cranmer, whom they will interrogate next morning. The King speaks privately with Cranmer, whom he warns against his enemies’ malice and to whom he gives a ring as a sign of his protection. The Old Lady announces the birth of a daughter. 5.2 Cranmer is kept waiting outside the council chamber: seeing this, Doctor Butts places the King where he can secretly watch the Council’s proceedings. The Lord Chancellor, seconded by Gardiner, accuses Cranmer of spreading...

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