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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

welfare state

welfare state   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
181 words

...intended to ensure the well-being of its members, through providing education for children, access to health care, financial support for periods out of the labour market, and so on. It gained currency in Britain and internationally in the late 1940s following the post-war establishment of a range of British public welfare systems ( see Beveridge Report ). Welfare states differ widely, however, in the ways in which they make such provision: for example, whether there is an emphasis on insurance contributions of paid workers and building up entitlement,...

military and militarism

military and militarism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
674 words

... investigated by Stouffer and his colleagues). By far the best overview of this literature, and still probably the best introduction to the field as a whole, is Janowitz's Sociology and the Military Establishment (3rd edn., 1974). A good overview of the field and update is Martin Shaw and Colin Creighton (eds.), The Sociology of War and Peace (1988). See also imperialism...

natural law

natural law   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
320 words

... of Thomas Hobbes , for example, ‘laws of nature’ provide rational grounds for the social contract, and so for the establishment of political authority. Since the 18th century, legal theory has tended to be hostile to the notion of natural law—the conventional, socially and historically formed character of law being more commonly emphasized. However, the increase in moral authority attaching to human rights since the Second World War owes much to the natural law tradition. The idea of the natural world as created by God, and so being subject (like human...

colonialism

colonialism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
253 words

...The establishment by more developed countries of formal political authority over areas of Asia, Africa, Australasia, and Latin America. It is distinct from spheres of influence, indirect forms of control, semi-colonialism , and neo-colonialism . Colonialism was practised by Spain, Portugal, Britain, France, and the Netherlands in the Americas from the fifteenth century onwards, and extended to virtually all of Asia and Africa during the 19th century. It was usually (but not necessarily) accompanied by the settling of White populations in these...

Beveridge Report

Beveridge Report   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
646 words

...Report. The report was enthusiastically received, selling 635 000 at two shillings each in the days following its release. This report came to be regarded as the blueprint of the British welfare state and continues to be invoked as a way of summarizing the post-war settlement and the establishment of the British welfare state, among both sociologists and politicians. In fact, though, the report dealt only with one aspect of the welfare state: how national insurance should function to cover periods of non-employment through sickness, unemployment, or old age,...

Hobbes, Thomas

Hobbes, Thomas (1588–1679)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
435 words

...passions are the basis of moral judgement, and issue in actions whose tendency is self-preservation. In Hobbes's view, then, human action is governed by the twin passions of fear of death and desire for power. If we imagine humans living in a ‘state of nature’ prior to the establishment of any law or political power to keep them ‘in awe’, each individual, lacking any reason for expecting goodwill from the others, will be caught up in a restless pursuit of ever more power. In such a situation, the desire for security on the part of each individual must issue...

altruism

altruism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
653 words

...to public goods . Other social animals also display altruistic behaviour (for example, birds give predator alarms) and some research has suggested that there is a hereditary, genetic component in altruism. Sociobiologists have identified selection processes that lead to the establishment and perpetuation of ‘altruistic’ genes in populations. In addition, socialization in the family and community encourages people to adhere to public-spirited values and engage in helping behaviour. People who do voluntary work generally give altruistic reasons for becoming...

American Legion

American Legion   Reference library

Lynn Dumenil

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...American “justice, freedom, and democracy” throughout the twentieth century. During World War II, legionnaires were active in organizing local civil defense. In addition, the legion became officially associated with the Federal Bureau of Investigation, assisting government agents in investigating enemy aliens. At war’s end, an infusion of new veterans swelled the membership roster to 3.5 million. In keeping with their anti-Communist stance, legionnaires during the Cold War adamantly insisted upon the need to roust “subversives” from government service and other...

Veterans’ Rights Movement

Veterans’ Rights Movement   Reference library

Ron Milam

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...payments to veterans of World War I. Known as the Bonus Army, the assemblage had to be cleared by the U.S. Army. That the American servicemen and their families felt the need to assemble for their rights is a reminder of the love-hate relationship of American citizens to their veterans. The Bonus Army served as a model for future veterans who wanted to bring attention to issues that detrimentally affected their lives. After World War II. Though the American political establishment responded to veterans’ needs after World War II with positive initiatives such...

General Federation of Women’s Clubs

General Federation of Women’s Clubs   Reference library

Sarah Kapit

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the period from 1900 to 1920 . Animated by the principle of “municipal housekeeping,” or the idea that women ought to transfer their skills as mothers and housekeepers to the public sphere, affiliated clubs embarked on a variety of projects that included conservation, establishment of public libraries, city beautification, reforms of the education system, and reforms of government policies related to American Indians. In some states, clubs were actively involved in the struggle for women’s suffrage. After the Nineteenth Amendment was ratified in 1920 ,...

Clergy

Clergy   Reference library

Kathryn Gin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...intensive theological training, which was unavailable to the general public. Their success, however, spurred the populists toward the establishment of their own colleges and seminaries in an effort to compete with the older and wealthier denominations. The major denominations split over the slavery issue in the antebellum era. By and large, the clergy became cheerleaders for their respective causes during the Civil War itself. Chaplains on both sides spurred camp revivals among soldiers whose thoughts turned to death on the verge of battle. After...

Iraq

Iraq   Reference library

Alexandra M. Jerome

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,090 words

...British, rule. The establishment of modern European and American styles of education occurred through British influence and the establishment, briefly, of a Hashemite monarchy in Iraq. Beginning in the 1920s, women began to be university educated. The overthrow of the British-supported Hashemite royal family in Iraq in 1958 and the installation of the Baʿath Party as leaders of the new Republic of Iraq ushered in decades of a precarious balance between secular and religious. Between 1970 and 1980 until the start of the war with Iran, education in...

Wealth

Wealth   Reference library

Noam Maggor

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...property. The vast majority of the city’s population at that time—84 percent of the households—owned little to no property. The Civil War marked a turning point in the history of American wealth. The war displaced the planters from their dominant position, and the emancipation of the slaves meant the end of the largest concentration of property in the United States , though planters did hold on to their property in land. The war also signaled a new phase of rapid industrialization, which created extraordinary openings for profit. Industrialists led the way,...

Lowell Textile Mills

Lowell Textile Mills   Reference library

Wendy M. Gordon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...in 1810 and 1811 and proposed a new method for organizing manufacturing. Tried on a small scale in Waltham, Massachusetts , before Lowell’s 1817 death, the Waltham- Lowell system housed every stage of cotton production from cleaning to finishing in one massive establishment. When the initial experiment at Lowell proved successful, more associates began construction. By 1836 , eight separate firms were being run on the same system operating in Lowell. To staff the factories, Lowell manufacturers recruited farmers’ daughters from across New...

Tarzi, Mahmud

Tarzi, Mahmud (1865–1933)   Reference library

Justin Corfield and Natana J. DeLong-Bas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
576 words

...their education in Turkey, where education had been secularized. When the King abdicated in 1929 , the Tarzi family was again forced into exile. Tarzi died on 22 November 1933 , in Istanbul. His influence in Afghanistan's history nevertheless remains, as shown by the establishment of the Mahmud Tarzi Cultural Foundation in Kabul in his memory in 2005 , which focuses on education and advancing the status of children and women in Afghan society. Bibliography Gregorian, Vartan . “Mahmud Tarzi and Saraj-ol-Akbar: Ideology of Nationalism and Modernization...

Hospitals and Dispensaries

Hospitals and Dispensaries   Reference library

Bernadette McCauley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Act sought to improve hospital care and availability through federal grants to states for hospital construction. The federal government had provided health care for veterans since shortly after the Civil War, when the first soldiers’ homes were established for disabled veterans, but World War II spawned a vast new system of veterans’ hospitals. Post–World War II Developments. In the postwar era, hospitals assumed an ever-greater medical and cultural role. The availability of antibiotics improved the safety and sophistication of hospital treatment and stirred...

Taverns and Bars

Taverns and Bars   Reference library

Madelon Powers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...as cards, dice, and bowling. As colonial resistance to English control turned to open rebellion in 1776 , many men looked to taverns as centers of political debate and action. In Philadelphia establishments, bitter arguments erupted over the merits of declaring independence, and John Adams met with fellow revolutionaries in a Boston tavern to discuss war developments. After the Revolution, the new Americans increasingly celebrated their freedom not with imported rum, but with homegrown whiskey. In the early republic, citizens hungry for land and...

Puerto Rican Americans

Puerto Rican Americans   Reference library

Arlene Torres

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...festivals, and commemorative events in honor of community leaders, activists, and organizations founded to address a wide array of sociopolitical concerns in both Puerto Rico and the continental United States . A history of social and political activism is reflected in the establishment of organizations including the Centro de Estudios Puertorriqueños (Center for Puerto Rican Studies, at Hunter College, City University of New York ), Aspira, Inc., the Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund, and the National Congress for Puerto Rican Rights. Puerto...

California

California   Reference library

William Deverell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... valley. By the mid- 1840 s, Americans clashed with the dominant ranching class of people of Mexican or Spanish descent, the “Californios.” The 1846 Bear Flag Revolt of some of these Americans and their Mexican allies saw the brief establishment of an unrecognized republic in California . The Mexican-American War of 1846 – 1848 soon followed, with a few scattered clashes in California . The defeat of Mexico resulted in the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which transferred California and much of the rest of the Southwest to the United States ....

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,349 words

...is smaller than the number of men, the average amount of money given to vakfs was comparatively similar (Filan, p. 109). It is also worth noting that financial strength was not always the crucial factor, since less-wealthy women also established pious endowments. The establishment of vakfs was not the only action women dealt with in this manner; they were also supervisors or administrators. Apart from the vakf system, women appeared in other documents as wealthy, middle-income, or poor brides; heiresses or testators: respondents or plaintiffs. It is...

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