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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

military-industrial-scientific complex

military-industrial-scientific complex   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,251 words

...Address of 17 January 1961 , President Dwight D. Eisenhower warned against “the acquisition of unwarranted influence … by the military-industrial complex” (MIC): a “conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large arms industry.” Since the days of Aristophanes, critics have accused arms makers of wholesale profiteering, of fomenting war scares to increase sales, of interference in political and military decisions, and of heating up arms races by selling to both sides of a conflict. Eisenhower warned also against the influence of a...

World War II and Cold War

World War II and Cold War   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,192 words

...Paul Forman and Jose-Manuel Sanchez-Ron , eds., National Military Establishments and the Advance of Science (1996). Robert Buderi , The Invention that Changed the World: The Story of Radar from War to Peace (1997). Stephen I. Schwartz , ed., Atomic Audit: The Costs and Consequences of U.S. Nuclear Weapons since 1940 (1998). Jeffrey T. Richelson , The Wizards of Langley: The CIA's Directorate of Science and Technology (2001). Social Studies of Science 31:3 , “Science in the Cold War” special issue, ed. Mark Solovey (2001). National Security Archive...

radar

radar   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
517 words

...end of the war all of the major combatants had mobilized their best scientific and engineering talent into developing a huge range of radar sets, for use in every type of military fixed installation, vehicle, aircraft, and ship. The leading laboratories were the Telecommunications Research Establishment (England), Telefunken and GEMA (Germany), the Radiophysics Lab (Australia), and the MIT Radiation Lab (United States)—the resources poured into radar research by the United States were second only to those used to develop an atomic bomb. After the war, the...

government

government   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,948 words

...in France and other modernizing countries. The new Soviet Union forged associations of scientists to support the nation's rapid industrialization. Germany used its Russian connections to help rebuild its own scientific establishment, damaged by the war and postwar inflation and boycotted by the Allied scientific establishments. The totalitarian policies of Hitler and Stalin, in particular the Nazis' anti-Semitic measures, required alignment of scientific concepts with political ideology. While many scientists emigrated as a conseqence, the continuing...

Blackett, Patrick M. S.

Blackett, Patrick M. S. (1897–1974)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,311 words

...circles sharpened his political views. He displayed no moral scruples after Hiroshima; he felt atomic bombs had ended the war and further bloodshed, and might prevent future wars. He became a staunch advocate of nuclear-weapons development by the United States, arguing in favor of a crash program to build a hydrogen bomb in 1949 and mobilizing his laboratory to aid the effort. A consequence of his advocacy was the establishment of an offshoot of the Berkeley lab that became the Livermore weapons laboratory. Although Lawrence did not testify in person at...

Bohr Institute

Bohr Institute   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
593 words

...University's Institute for Theoretical Physics. Like Bohr's professorship created in 1916 , its establishment was promoted by a group of influential friends both at home and abroad. In his inaugural speech Bohr explained that the purposes of the new institute were to test experimentally the predictions of the new field of atomic physics and to accommodate young scientists from all over the world for short periods. At that time, so soon after World War I, neutral Denmark was ideally situated to attract and accept visitors from any country. Bohr's goals...

meteorological station

meteorological station   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
572 words

... and the establishment of national weather services. In the 1890s kites, balloons, and mountain stations offered early glimpses into the three-dimensional structure of the atmosphere. The airplane increased this knowledge while multiplying requirements for upper-air forecasting. The much denser networks of both ground and air stations established during World War I contributed significantly to the invention and development of the polar-front model of cyclones and the air-mass method of analysis. Immediately after World War II rockets began to...

standardization

standardization   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,536 words

...in east-west trade, the military urgencies of the Civil War, and the first transcontinental railroad forced standardization of gauges. The expansion of the railroads also precipitated standardization throughout whole economies by encouraging the mass manufacturing and mass marketing of standardized products. The long-distance, high-volume trade in grain, for example, meant that buyers no longer could personally inspect and oversee each purchase. The new impersonality required the establishment of standardized units and grades of grain. Similar...

network and virtual college

network and virtual college   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
557 words

...“republic of letters,” independent of local power and constraints, has been a frequent claim of savants, and especially natural philosophers and scientists, since the Renaissance. In the 1660s the early scientific societies tried to implement the claim: they presented the establishment of a regular correspondence with distant cultivators of the sciences as a prominent goal of their mission. During the Enlightenment that same claim, and the related notion that natural knowledge increases by being communicated, became widespread tenets, shared by the educated...

political economy of science

political economy of science   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
3,779 words

...of the political economy of science were manifested in Russia, World War I had a large impact on the political economy of science in many countries. Scientists and their work in defeated Germany and Austria suffered intense privation in the first three years after the war, giving the hundreds of Japanese scientists who had earlier studied there the opportunity to repay their academic benefactors with gifts of cash, research equipment, and laboratory animals. Scientific establishments in the United States, Canada, and Britain acquired material resources on...

earth science

earth science   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
980 words

...of submarine warfare during World War II and the Cold War gave a strong boost to seismology and studies of submarine gravity. Before World War II, the Dutch physicist Felix Andries Vening-Meinesz had developed a pendulum apparatus (now named after him) that made it possible to measure gravity at sea as accurately as on land. Using this apparatus, Vening-Meinesz and others mapped the gravity anomalies of the ocean floors and discovered the areas of downbuckling frequently associated with island arcs. Following the War, Maurice Ewing developed sea-floor...

Einstein, Albert

Einstein, Albert (1879–1955)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
995 words

...World War I and arms control after World War II; decried nationalism and undemocratic, hierarchical rules; supported Zionism (with provision for the Arabs in Palestine); and opposed religious establishments in favor of a cosmic religion in the spirit of Spinoza. Einstein's fame and charisma made him the target of attacks, chiefly by anti-Semites, and also flooded him with adoring or opportunistic appeals. An example of the latter was his acting as intermediary between three of his fellow émigré colleagues, who in August 1939 , on the eve of World War II,...

Asia

Asia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
3,976 words

...in science, and after 1990 it made explicit declarations to that effect. Convinced by these declarations, Leo Esaki accepted the presidency of Tsukuba University in 1992 . Japan's business establishment added weight to expectations by publicly advocating huge increases in funding for research in academic institutions. For Esaki and the Japanese establishment, securing more Nobel Prizes in science became both a public aspiration and a symbolic obsession. Specific initiatives such as the annual Japanese Forum of Nobel Prize Recipients were launched to...

oceanographic institutions

oceanographic institutions   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,507 words

...1880s till 1914 . He set up his twin foundations, the Institut Océanographique in Paris and the Musée Océanographique at Monaco, both still in existence, to house his collections and promote the science of the sea through research and teaching. After World War II Admiralty pressure led to the establishment of a (British) National Institute of Oceanography ( 1949 ), now incorporated in the large-scale Southampton Oceanography Centre, established in 1995 . In the United States concern about the state of marine science prompted several initiatives in the...

magneto-optics

magneto-optics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
646 words

...for the ratio of charge to mass of cathode-ray particles. The “Zeeman effect” played a major part in the establishment of the electron as a building block of matter. Zeeman and Lorentz shared the Nobel Prize for physics in 1902 . Most Zeeman patterns differ from Lorentz's triplet. Explaining quartets, quintets, and so on proved too much for both classical and early quantum theories of atomic structure and spectral emission. After World War I demobilizing physicists found the “anomalous Zeeman effect,” which most of them had ignored, high among the...

revolution, restoration, and the royal society

revolution, restoration, and the royal society   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
580 words

...engineering. At the Restoration, London became more hospitable to intellectual pursuits, in part because those who had been exiled during the interregnum brought back new ideas and fashions from their foreign travels. Members of the London and Oxford groups proposed the establishment of a Royal Society of London for the pursuit of natural knowledge to which Charles II gave a charter in 1662 . Most of the society's ambitious plans for experimental investigations came to nothing. It had one signal success, however. Its Philosophical Transactions quickly...

English-speaking world

English-speaking world   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
3,151 words

...Australia represented the higher education available in the English-speaking parts of the British Empire. The United States had begun copying the German academic model with the establishment of Johns Hopkins in the 1870s, the University of Chicago in the 1890s, and the importation of an embryonic research ethic into the older East Coast institutions. The Land Grant Act of the Civil War years had established universities that would become research centers, notably in the Middle West and California. MIT was a modest engineering school; Cal Tech did not exist....

shift of hegemony

shift of hegemony   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,561 words

...such manpower to aggregate in already overflowing centers.” Price's scientometric observations found detailed extension in a 1975 study by Paul Forman , J. L. Heilbron , and Spencer Weart , who set out to provide a comparative, statistical picture of physics at academic establishments around the world in the year 1900 , the eve of the quantum revolution. They compared physical size, budget, and staff of laboratories and institutes, as well as the literature output of national sectors. The information was assembled from a wide variety of published sources,...

Europe and Russia

Europe and Russia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
2,801 words

...science on a global stage. See also Academics and Learned Societies ; Associations for the Advancement of Science ; Nobel Prize ; Standardization ; University ; World War II and Cold War . Alexander Vucinich , Science in Russian Culture (1963). Paul Forman , J. L. Heilbron , and Spencer Weart , Physics around 1900: Personnel, Funding, and Productivity of the Academic Establishments , Historical Studies in the Physical And Biological Sciences 5 (1975): 1–185. Brigitte Schröder-Gudehus , Scientifiques et la paix. La communauté scientifique...

terrestrial magnetism

terrestrial magnetism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,565 words

...analyses of the earth's field although they did not propose new comprehensive theories. With the establishment of national surveys and observatories, the amount of data available multiplied. The beginning of submarine warfare accelerated military interest in geomagnetism. International organizations expanded; in 1896 the journal Terrestrial Magnetism was founded. Another period of rapid breakthroughs in geomagnetism occurred in the years following World War II. In 1947 , following measurements of the magnetic fields of the sun and some stars, the English...

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