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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

George Bogdan Kistiakowsky

George Bogdan Kistiakowsky  

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(1900–1982) Russian–American chemistKistiakowsky came from a family of academics in Kiev, now in Ukraine. He began his education in his native city but, after fighting against the Bolsheviks, ...
Yuval Ne'eman

Yuval Ne'eman  

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(1925–2006) Israeli physicistNe'eman, who was born at Tel Aviv, was educated at the Israel Institute of Technology (Haifa) where he graduated in engineering in 1945. His academic career was ...
Francis William Aston

Francis William Aston  

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(1877–1945)British scientist, who surveyed the periodic table of the elements with his mass spectrograph, which he designed himself and which has since become a standard tool in atomic physics. He ...
Otto Robert Frisch

Otto Robert Frisch  

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(1904–1979) Austrian–British physicistFrisch, the son of a Viennese printer and publisher, was educated at the University of Vienna where he obtained his doctorate in 1926. He was employed in Berlin ...
Robert Jemison Van de Graaff

Robert Jemison Van de Graaff  

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(1901–1967) American physicistBorn in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, Van de Graaff studied engineering at the University of Alabama, gaining his BS in 1922 and his MS in 1923. He enrolled in 1924 at the ...
Rita Levi-Montalcini

Rita Levi-Montalcini  

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(1909–) Italian cell biologistLevi-Montalcini was educated at the university in her native city of Turin, graduating from medical school just before the outbreak of World War II. Being of ...
Colossus

Colossus  

An electronic special-purpose digital “computer” that was built in great secrecy by the Post Office Research Station in London and began useful work at the government establishment at Bletchley Park, ...
Sir Martin Ryle

Sir Martin Ryle  

(1918–1984)British radio astronomer who carried out pioneering surveys of the radio sky in the 1950s and 1960s. Ryle was awarded the 1974 Nobel Prize for Physics (the first astronomer to be so ...
Cockcroft, Sir John Douglas

Cockcroft, Sir John Douglas   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
243 words

...MeV For this work Cockcroft and Walton received the 1951 Nobel Prize for physics. During World War II Cockcroft played a leading part in the development of radar. In 1940 he visited America as a member of the Tizard mission to negotiate exchanges of military, scientific, and technological information. In 1944 he became director of the Anglo-Canadian Atomic Energy Commission. He returned to Britain in 1946 to direct the new Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell and remained there until 1959 , when he was appointed master of Churchill College,...

Ne'eman, Yuval

Ne'eman, Yuval   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
236 words

.... The theory was consolidated in a book by the two men with the title The Eightfold Way ( 1964 ) and later formed the basis of a further significant theoretical development – the ‘quark' hypothesis. From 1961 to 1963 Ne'eman was scientific director of the Saraq Research Establishment of the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission, and from 1963 was head of the physics department and an associate professor at Tel Aviv University. In 1964 he became a full professor and was also appointed vice-rector of the...

Kistiakowsky, George Bogdan

Kistiakowsky, George Bogdan   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
266 words

...To work the process must take place in less than a millionth of a second and with great precision and accuracy. Right to the very end there was considerable doubt as to whether Kistiakowsky could solve the technical problems involved. After the war Kistiakowsky, very much a figure of the scientific establishment, spent much time advising numerous governmental bodies. From 1959 until 1961 he served as special assistant for science and technology to President Eisenhower , later writing an account of this period in A Scientist at the White House ( 1976...

Maury, Matthew Fontaine

Maury, Matthew Fontaine   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
372 words

...Office. Maury largely ignored astronomical work, emphasizing instead the study of oceanography and meteorology, and consequently aroused the opposition of the scientific establishment centered upon Joseph Henry and Alexander Bache . He resigned his position with the outbreak of the American Civil War ( 1861 ) to become a commander in the Confederate Navy. After the war he took on, in 1865 , the post of Imperial Commissioner for Immigration to the doomed Emperor Maximilian of Mexico to establish a confederate colony. Following the collapse of the...

Ryle, Sir Martin

Ryle, Sir Martin   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
463 words

...Sir Martin (1918–1984) British radio astronomer Ryle , the son of a physician, was born at Brighton and studied at Oxford University. He spent the war with the Telecommunications Research Establishment in Dorset working on radar. After the war he received a fellowship to the Cavendish Laboratory of Cambridge University and in 1948 was appointed lecturer in physics. In 1959 he became the first Cambridge professor of radio astronomy, having been made in 1957 the director of the Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory in Cambridge. Ryle was appointed...

London, Heinz

London, Heinz   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
312 words

...staff of the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell where he remained until his death. In Oxford London continued the work of his thesis in his collaboration with his brother on a number of pressing problems in superconductivity. In particular they explained the discoveries of W. Meissner that at the moment a metal becomes superconductive it expels the magnetic field produced by an electric current; if, however, a strong external magnetic field is applied normal resistivity will return. At Harwell after the war London worked until the 1950s on...

Levi-Montalcini, Rita

Levi-Montalcini, Rita   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
365 words

...Rita (1909–2012) Italian cell biologist Levi-Montalcini was educated at the university in her native city of Turin, graduating from medical school just before the outbreak of World War II. Being of Italian-Jewish descent, she found that posts in Italy's academic establishments were closed to her as a result of growing antisemitism. Undaunted, she converted her bedroom into a makeshift laboratory and proceeded with her studies of the development of chick embryos. In this she was joined by her former professor (but no relation), Giuseppe Levi ,...

Watson-Watt, Sir Robert Alexander

Watson-Watt, Sir Robert Alexander   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
554 words

...a carpenter and was educated at the University of St. Andrews. After graduating in 1912 he immediately joined the faculty but found his academic career disrupted by World War I. He spent much of the war working as a meteorologist at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, attempting to locate thunderstorms with radio waves. He remained in the scientific civil service after the war and in 1921 was appointed superintendent of the Radio Research Station at Slough. In 1935 he was asked by the Air Ministry if a ‘death ray’ could be built – one capable...

Frisch, Otto Robert

Frisch, Otto Robert   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
447 words

...traveled via Copenhagen to England. After working at the universities of Birmingham and Liverpool ( 1939–43 ) he moved to America and spent the period 1943–45 at Los Alamos, working on the development of the atom bomb. With the end of the war Frisch worked briefly at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell, leaving in 1947 to take up the Jackson Chair of Physics at Cambridge, a post he held until his retirement in 1972 . In 1939 Frisch, with his aunt, Lise Meitner , was closely involved in the crucial discovery of nuclear fission. He...

Van de Graaff, Robert Jemison

Van de Graaff, Robert Jemison   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
429 words

...operation in a Boston hospital in 1937 . During World War II Van de Graaff was director of the radiographic project of the Office of Scientific Research and Development in which the generator was developed for another use: the examination of the interior structure of heavy ordnance by means of x-rays. In 1946 Trump and Van de Graaff formed the High Voltage Engineering Corporation to market Van de Graaff accelerators and x-ray generators to hospitals, industry, and scientific research establishments. Van de Graaff was director and chief physicist and in ...

Lenard, Philipp Eduard Anton

Lenard, Philipp Eduard Anton   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
669 words

...He also felt that J. J. Thomson had used some of his work without due recognition. His suspicions of other workers were the first signs that Lenard was developing a somewhat idiosyncratic view of physics. The latter half of his career, from 1919 , was spent arguing for the establishment of a new physics, a ‘German’ physics untainted with Jewish theories. Although Lenard was a German patriot who was deeply affected by Germany's defeat in 1918 , he was not simply an anti-Semite. He attacked Einstein as a socialist, a pacifist, and, indeed, as a Jew;...

Aston, Francis William

Aston, Francis William   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
760 words

...who invited Aston to work with him. He remained at Birmingham until 1910 when he moved to Cambridge as research assistant to J. J. Thomson . He became a research fellow at Cambridge in 1920 and stayed there for the rest of his life, apart from the war years spent at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough. Aston's main work, for which he received the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1922 , was on the design and use of the mass spectrograph, which was used to clear up several outstanding problems and became one of the basic tools of the new atomic...

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