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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

war establishment

war establishment   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... establishment the level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in...

war establishment

war establishment noun   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
36 words
war establishment

war establishment  

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.
Education

Education   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,267 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...staff appointed (predominantly from Scotland or abroad). Around 300 men were admitted as students in 1828 . Various forces within the English academic and ecclesiastical establishments strongly opposed the new institution, and it had to wait another eight years before it was granted a charter, which officially renamed it ‘University College, London’. Meanwhile, the establishment forces had set up a counterpart in the metropolis, King's College, which retained Anglican affiliations and stressed the crucial importance of religious values while also...

Revolution

Revolution   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,734 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...four years of the decade the British government came under considerable strain: the war with France was going badly; the country was under constant threat of invasion from 1797 ; and it had major difficulties financing the war, resulting in a banking crisis in early 1797 and the suspension of specie payments (maintained until 1821 ). At the end of 1797 William *Pitt was forced to introduce a bill trebling assessed taxes, and a scheme of voluntary contributions to aid war funding was also established; but neither proved adequate to meet needs, and the...

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,145 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...invaluable Icelandic *codices . Furthermore, numerous fragments have survived as binding material (e.g. c .10,000 leaves or sheets representing c .1,500 books from Finland), adding considerably to what is known about Nordic medieval book culture. With the missions and the establishment of churches in the 10 th –12 th centuries, Scandinavia became part of Christian European culture, being introduced to *parchment books and to the Latin language and alphabet. Reading and writing were not entirely new phenomena. Runes ( see 3 ) had been used for...

Empire

Empire   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,298 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of State for the Colonies under Henry Bathurst ( 1762–1834 ), the first Secretary for War and Colonies to take a close interest in colonial affairs. Further bureaucratic recognition of the importance of colonial affairs came with the establishment of a Permanent Under-Secretary in 1825 . Between 1836 and 1847 this office was held by Sir James Stephen ( 1789–1859 ), under whom the Colonial Office was put on a firm organizational footing and rendered an effective instrument in advancing representative government and in opposing the slave...

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation   Quick reference

R. W. Hoyle

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
7,753 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...waned when the immediate social problems disappeared and government turned its attention to more pressing matters. After the Civil War even this limited activism ceased. The majority of the government's employees were concerned with the collection of revenue as customs officials , rent collectors, or excise men. For the early modern period, it is impossible to produce accurate figures of how large the central establishment was, for much government work was carried out not by its own salaried officers but by clerks and deputies employed by them, and paid...

6 The European Printing Revolution

6 The European Printing Revolution   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,082 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...larger variety of titles, to more people, in different locations, generally at a cheaper price. The establishment of printing in about 250 towns, most of which hosted more than one *printing office , is characterized by an enormous amount of entrepreneurial experimentation. A more detailed analysis of the presses’ output and period of activity would show that a number of cases involved the work of an itinerant printer or of temporary or short-lived establishments. Printers moved in and out of a profession not yet perceived as such, nor yet clearly defined by...

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,991 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...subjects such as homosexuality and conscientious objection. Wartime publishing also presented publishers with opportunities, however. In World War I, companies responded to the changed environment by publishing works relating to the new social and political conditions: *pamphlets assessing current affairs; novels with wartime themes; periodicals with articles on the war effort. In the years before and during World War II, publishers’ output similarly reflected the changing times. Penguin’s ‘Specials’—midway between books and pamphlets—were produced rapidly to...

31 The History of the Book in Hungary

31 The History of the Book in Hungary   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,942 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...suffered in the war, Imre Kner ( 1890–1945 ) and Lajos Kozma ( 1884–1948 ) revived the typographic traditions of the baroque period, combining them with modern-day typesetting technology. They produced remarkable works such as the ‘Monumenta Literarum’ and the ‘Kner Classics’ series. The Kner Press was the first to announce the liberation of Hungary following World War II. It continued to function under the directorship of the designer, printer, and researcher György Haiman ( 1914–96 ), until it was nationalized in 1949 . Between the wars, the traditions of...

34 The History of the Book in the Baltic States

34 The History of the Book in the Baltic States   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,992 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and annexation by the Soviet Union. After the outbreak of the war between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany, the Baltic States were briefly occupied by German troops until the Soviet Union reconquered and annexed the republics within the USSR. Under Soviet occupation, the Baltic States suffered severe population loss through deportation and emigration, the latter resulting in a sizeable output of émigré publications (e.g. in Sweden, Germany, the UK, US, and Australia). Following the establishment of strong pro-independence movements during the second half of...

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,157 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...was convened at Nigeria’s University of Ife in 1973 ; 1975 saw the establishment of the now-defunct UNESCO co-sponsored Regional Book Promotion Centre for Africa in Yaoundé, as well as the first issue of the influential * African Book Publishing Record . The *Noma Award for Publishing in Africa was established in 1979 , the first award going to the Senegalese author Mariama Bâ, for Une si longue lettre . Landmarks in Francophone book production in the region include the establishment of the journal and publishing house Présence africaine by Alioune...

29 The History of the Book in Modern Greece, c.1453–2000

29 The History of the Book in Modern Greece, c.1453–2000   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,105 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...a weekly books supplement or dedicated several pages to books. Oddly, the circulation of pocket books dwindled; popular bestsellers appeared in the same format as quality literature, often issued by the same publishing houses. The 21 st century has been marked by the establishment of multi-story book ‘megastores’ (e.g. Eleftheroudakis, Ianos, Fnac) in city centres and suburbs. The explosion in book publishing seems unlikely to abate: the 7,450 titles published in 2001 rose to 9,209 in 2006 . Bibliography L. Droulia , History of the Greek Book ...

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans   Reference library

Aleksandra B. Vraneš

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,947 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Njegoš), was also published abroad in 1837 , although by then he had already established his own press ( 1834 ), the second on Montenegrin soil. During a Turkish siege in 1852 its *type had to be melted down for bullets, but in 1858 a new press was obtained. The establishment of a National Public Library in Cetinje was first proposed in 1879 , but implemented only in 1893 . From 1905 , the library started receiving *legal deposit copies. By 1912 , it had more than 10,000 titles, a large number of *incunabula and early printed books, and...

47 The History of the Book in Canada

47 The History of the Book in Canada   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,120 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

..., department stores, and cheap imports—so much activity that a new book trade journal, * Quill & Quire (1935– ) , was launched. The establishment by the federal government in 1932 of a public broadcaster, the *Canadian Broadcasting Corporation since 1936 , was a turning point for book culture in Canada. On radio, and television from 1952 , authors found both a market and an audience. After Canada entered the war in 1939 , the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, the new National Film Board, and print in every form from ration books to posters were...

22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,032 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...as 1475 ); at Rouen in 1485 ; at Abbeville in 1486 ; at Orléans and Grenoble in 1490 ; at Angoulême and Narbonne in 1491 . Save for a few ephemeral undertakings, like the one Jehan de Rohan ran in his Breton château of Bréhant-Loudéac in 1484–5 , most were permanent establishments. Leaving aside the Alsatian region, which was politically and culturally part of the Germanic world, there were presses in about 30 French cities by 1500 . Lyons was not a university town but a major commercial centre with frequent contacts with northern Italy and Germany....

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,044 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...deploring the ‘eternal treacherous behaviour’ of his Bengali assistants (Shaw, Printing , 24–5 ). Two events in 1800 were to have a momentous effect on printing in south and southeast Asia. The first was the establishment in Calcutta of the Fort William College to train the British civilians of the East India Company. The second was the establishment of a Baptist mission at Serampore (25 km from Calcutta) by William *Carey , an ex-cobbler, who arrived at Calcutta in 1793 . His first few years in India were spent in Malda, working for an indigo planter, and...

Enlightenment

Enlightenment   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...completely. Stalwart support emerged in a distinctive pocket of enlightened radicalism in south Cardiganshire. Dubbed the Black Spot (Y Smotyn Du) by *Methodists , a cluster of Unitarian chapels emerged, supported by the local farming folk. They declared war on an alien religious establishment and on Methodistical enthusiasm alike, and formed an almost unique example of an enduring rural Enlightenment. It was perhaps inevitable that in the overcharged atmosphere of the 1790s *millenarian ideas proved especially attractive. Mythic notions of the Welsh...

Pericles

Pericles   Reference library

Sonia Massai and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,543 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...virgin and no prostitute: he leaves promising to help. The Bawd, outraged by Marina’s behaviour, orders Boult to deflower her, but she persuades him she will be more profitably employed in respectable activities such as sewing, weaving, and dancing. 20 Gower narrates Marina’s establishment as a singer and embroiderer, and the arrival of Pericles’ ship at Mytilene. 21 Lysimachus enquires after Pericles’ distemper and suggests that Marina might be able to cure him. Marina is sent for and sings to the silent Pericles. He initially pushes her away, but his interest...

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