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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

war establishment

war establishment   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... establishment the level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in...

war establishment

war establishment noun   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
36 words
war establishment

war establishment  

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.
Education

Education   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,267 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...staff appointed (predominantly from Scotland or abroad). Around 300 men were admitted as students in 1828 . Various forces within the English academic and ecclesiastical establishments strongly opposed the new institution, and it had to wait another eight years before it was granted a charter, which officially renamed it ‘University College, London’. Meanwhile, the establishment forces had set up a counterpart in the metropolis, King's College, which retained Anglican affiliations and stressed the crucial importance of religious values while also...

Revolution

Revolution   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,734 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...four years of the decade the British government came under considerable strain: the war with France was going badly; the country was under constant threat of invasion from 1797 ; and it had major difficulties financing the war, resulting in a banking crisis in early 1797 and the suspension of specie payments (maintained until 1821 ). At the end of 1797 William *Pitt was forced to introduce a bill trebling assessed taxes, and a scheme of voluntary contributions to aid war funding was also established; but neither proved adequate to meet needs, and the...

Empire

Empire   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,298 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of State for the Colonies under Henry Bathurst ( 1762–1834 ), the first Secretary for War and Colonies to take a close interest in colonial affairs. Further bureaucratic recognition of the importance of colonial affairs came with the establishment of a Permanent Under-Secretary in 1825 . Between 1836 and 1847 this office was held by Sir James Stephen ( 1789–1859 ), under whom the Colonial Office was put on a firm organizational footing and rendered an effective instrument in advancing representative government and in opposing the slave...

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation

Central Government, Courts, and Taxation   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
7,750 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...waned when the immediate social problems disappeared and government turned its attention to more pressing matters. After the Civil War even this limited activism ceased. The majority of the government's employees were concerned with the collection of revenue as customs officials , rent collectors, or excise men. For the early modern period, it is impossible to produce accurate figures of how large the central establishment was, for much government work was carried out not by its own salaried officers but by clerks and deputies employed by them, and paid...

Enlightenment

Enlightenment   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...completely. Stalwart support emerged in a distinctive pocket of enlightened radicalism in south Cardiganshire. Dubbed the Black Spot (Y Smotyn Du) by *Methodists , a cluster of Unitarian chapels emerged, supported by the local farming folk. They declared war on an alien religious establishment and on Methodistical enthusiasm alike, and formed an almost unique example of an enduring rural Enlightenment. It was perhaps inevitable that in the overcharged atmosphere of the 1790s *millenarian ideas proved especially attractive. Mythic notions of the Welsh...

Religion

Religion   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,549 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...rates for the upkeep of church buildings and churchyards, a right much changed and eroded in the nineteenth century. The intrinsically problematical character of Warburton's analysis—which he had insisted was rooted in the order of nature—is underscored by the ways in which establishment elsewhere in Britain and Ireland was realized. The Presbyterian Church of Scotland, descending from the sixteenth-century Reformation, was governed (again under the King, who adhered to different religions north and south of the border) through a hierarchy of mixed lay and...

Agricultural History

Agricultural History   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,326 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...had attempted national surveys. The opening of county record offices in many parts of England, making accessible much new archival material, encouraged the local and regional approach which has been so important since the Second World War. The expansion of the national higher education system and in particular the establishment of university departments of economic history brought many new scholars into the field. By 1953 there were sufficient of these to launch the British Agricultural History Society and its journal, the Agricultural History Review ,...

Viewing

Viewing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,051 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...ethnographic in nature was not welcomed by connoisseurs and artists whose first desire was the establishment of a National Gallery of Art. The notion of a gallery that could educate artists, impress foreigners, and definitively answer the aspersions cast against the taste of the British public, had been advanced periodically through the century. However, development of a national gallery in England was hampered by political apathy, the expense of successive wars, and latterly by the whiff of *republicanism that accompanied the notion of a public art...

Local and Regional History: Modern Approaches

Local and Regional History: Modern Approaches   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,317 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Kent and the Great Rebellion, 1640–60 ( 1966 ), have proved particularly rewarding in reinterpreting the period of the Civil War and Commonwealth . Localized research has challenged the ways in which national history has been viewed. The county format was also used by the Hodder and Stoughton series of landscape histories, under Hoskins's editorship. A purely practical reason for favouring the county unit was the establishment of county record offices ; the bulk of the archives, outside those of the major national collections, are housed together,...

Local Government

Local Government   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,193 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and Welsh counties the JPs apparently preferred to allow begging rather than court unpopularity by demanding that rates be levied. A mixture of magisterial pressure and the need for parishes to cope with the dearth years of 1630–1 and 1647–50 made for the near‐universal establishment of parish relief by 1660 . From this date, the duty of supervising the Poor Law in the parishes must have taken over a large part of an active magistrate's time. But the Old Poor Law was essentially a system of parish relief, operated by overseers whose policy in the parish...

Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,380 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...always revolved around the rise of disruptive new patterns of work, the *factory system , and machine-driven production. Probably fewer than 12 per cent of the British workforce was employed in factories by 1850 , and as late as 1871 the average size of a manufacturing establishment was under twenty employees. Indeed, craft and unmechanized trades were still the most numerous; there were more shoemakers than coalminers in 1851 , and coalmining was itself hardly exemplary in its use of powered machinery, relying primarily on muscle-power for the hewing...

Towns

Towns   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,095 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and it is true that the state in 1688 restored the old pattern of chartered and unchartered towns in all their variety, and that no major changes were made until the 19th century. However, piecemeal improvements under Acts of Parliament were numerous, especially in the establishment of improvement commissions from 1725 ; these enjoyed wide powers to raise money and to provide services, and in consequence corporate towns acquired a valuable supplementary authority, while unincorporated towns acquired a vital means of self‐government. As a result,...

Place-Names

Place-Names   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,692 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...names, such as Welsh and Cornish formations with tref and tre , are of post‐Roman date. Some are certainly medieval, because (as with Irish Bally‐ and Manx Balla‐ names) they have post‐Norman Conquest personal or family names as qualifiers. In Celtic‐speaking countries the establishment of distinctions between the earliest names and those of medieval origin is a fraught exercise which impinges on feelings about ethnic identity. Manx people, for instance, do not like to be told that many of their Gaelic names date from after rather than before the Viking...

Prose

Prose   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,185 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...new knowledges, alongside work in already established prose fields such as *biography , *autobiography , and *novels [31] . Yet their summary judgements on these books encouraged the accusation that, instead of allowing readers to ‘think for themselves’, the new reviewing establishment was imperiously imposing its own opinions (whether *Whig or *Tory ) on an unsuspecting public. A turning-point in the history of British reviewing culture developed in the early 1780s. Writers for the Whiggish Monthly and Tory Critical reviews had expressed their...

Utopianism

Utopianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,929 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the millenarian restoration of an ancient Jewish constitution and homeland. They also saw the ‘Jubilee Day’ expounded in Leviticus 25, when Moses dramatically freed the slaves and restored the alienated lands of the Hebrew tribes, as a loose revolutionary model for the re-establishment in Britain of a democratic, smallholder, agrarian republic. Many *Spenceans thus sought, in the manner of Blake, to bring about the advent of a new Jerusalem in England's ‘green and pleasant land’. Spencean utopias were scarcely disguised manifestos for revolutionary...

Design

Design   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,178 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...according to classical precedent. Boulton saw his factory as a ‘Temple of the Vulcanian Arts’. Besides manufacturing toys and Sheffield plate on a large scale, he started in the late 1760s to produce high-quality ormolu and silverware, the latter greatly stimulated by the establishment of an Assay Office in Birmingham in 1773 , largely through his efforts. Wedgwood named his new factory ‘Etruria’, on the generally but mistakenly held belief that the Etruscans made the finest antique vases. By selling ‘Vases, Urns and other ornaments after the Etruscan,...

Education

Education   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to Family and Local History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,282 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Acts of 1833 and 1842 ) in order to provide two hours of schooling six days a week for their child workers aged 9 to 13. The numerous private schools were often ephemeral, many of them dismissed contemptuously as ‘dame schools’, for they were little more than childminding establishments, though the more successful ones were listed as ‘private academies’ in trade and commercial directories . The emergence of a sizeable middle class created a demand for superior private schools, especially for girls. The Churches were active in promoting both day proprietary...

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