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variable-interval schedule

In operant conditioning, a simple reinforcement schedule in which reward follows the first response that the organism makes after a random time interval, and then the first response that ...

variable-interval schedule

variable-interval schedule n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...-interval schedule n . In operant conditioning, a simple reinforcement schedule in which reward follows the first response that the organism makes after a random time interval, and then the first response that it makes after another random time interval, and so on, the average length of the interval being specified in seconds as an affix to the abbreviation, hence VI20 indicates a variable-interval schedule with an average interval of 20 seconds. Also called a variable-interval reinforcement schedule . See also simple reinforcement schedule ....

variable-interval schedule

variable-interval schedule  

In operant conditioning, a simple reinforcement schedule in which reward follows the first response that the organism makes after a random time interval, and then the first response that it makes ...
fixed-interval schedule

fixed-interval schedule  

In operant conditioning, a simple reinforcement schedule in which reward follows the first response that the organism makes after a predetermined time interval, and then the first response that it ...
variable-ratio schedule

variable-ratio schedule  

In operant conditioning, a simple reinforcement schedule in which reward is delivered after the organism has made a random number of responses, and is then rewarded after a further random number of ...
fixed-ratio schedule

fixed-ratio schedule  

In operant conditioning, a simple reinforcement schedule in which reward is delivered after the organism has made a fixed number of responses, and is delivered again after the same number of ...
reinforcement schedule

reinforcement schedule  

In operant conditioning, a particular arrangement of the contingency of reinforcement (1), relating an organism's responses to the frequency and timing of the reinforcement. In continuous ...
fixed-interval schedule

fixed-interval schedule n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...interval schedule n. In operant conditioning , a simple reinforcement schedule in which reward follows the first response that the organism makes after a predetermined time interval, and then the first response that it makes after the same interval, and so on, the duration of the interval being specified in seconds as an affix to the abbreviation, hence FI20 indicates a fixed-interval schedule with a 20-second interval. Also called a fixed-interval reinforcement schedule . See also simple reinforcement schedule . Compare fixed-ratio schedule , ...

variable-ratio schedule

variable-ratio schedule n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...fixed-interval schedule , fixed-ratio schedule , variable-interval schedule . VR abbrev...

fixed-ratio schedule

fixed-ratio schedule n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...interval schedule , variable-ratio schedule . FR ...

reinforcement schedule

reinforcement schedule n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...schedule , variable-interval schedule , and variable-ratio schedule . See also compound reinforcement schedule , differential reinforcement of high response rates , differential reinforcement of low response rates , differential reinforcement of other responses , differential reinforcement of paced responses...

Experience Sampling in Lifespan Developmental Methodology

Experience Sampling in Lifespan Developmental Methodology   Reference library

Michaela Riediger and Antje Rauers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
10,019 words

...within-person variation can be adequately represented by the scheduled experience samples. Interval-contingent sampling , in contrast, involves scheduling assessments at predetermined time points during the day. Compared to signal-contingent sampling, this requires less flexibility from participants, but it comes at the cost of comparatively less representative experience samples and a higher likelihood that participants adjust their daily activities in expectation of the assessment. Interval-contingent sampling can nevertheless be appropriate when the...

Measurement Burst Designs in Lifespan Developmental Research

Measurement Burst Designs in Lifespan Developmental Research   Reference library

Gawon Cho, Giancarlo Pasquini, and Stacey B. Scott

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
9,991 words
Illustration(s):
3

...the interval of time between bursts, the length of each burst, the schedule and mode by which assessments occur during each burst, and information about participants in the study. Table 1. Example Measurement Burst Studies in Aging Literature. Burst Study Type Study Design Details Key Domains Reference Daily Diary National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE) in Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) Number of bursts 2 Daily activities (time use) Almeida, McGonagle, & King ( 2009 ) Interval between bursts ...

Models of the Political Business Cycle

Models of the Political Business Cycle   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...elections. Rather than considering ways of dealing with mid-term election years, the aforementioned papers instead distinguish between scheduled election years and all other years. There is clear evidence that politics matters. First, consider the tax revenue raised by state governments. Commodity tax revenues, the most important component of state governments’ own tax revenue, are lowered around the time of scheduled elections. Khemani ( 2004 ) probes this finding further by examining the three most significant sources of commodity tax revenues: state...

Grenada

Grenada   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
847 words

...led by the relatively young, middle-class Maurice Bishop who implemented a socialist “people's democracy” with a mixed economy. The regime's close links with Cuba and the Eastern Bloc, its relatively high level of militarization, alleged human rights violations, and refusal to schedule elections, all alarmed the United States and Grenada's eastern Caribbean neighbors. In 1983 , a dispute between governmental factions resulted in the execution of the prime minister and some members of his cabinet, as well as the death of many civilians. The eastern Caribbean...

Intraindividual Variability in Lifespan Developmental Methodology

Intraindividual Variability in Lifespan Developmental Methodology   Reference library

Eric S. Cerino and Karen Hooker

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
7,080 words
Illustration(s):
2

...( 2018 ) . In time-based designs, participants are prompted to report on experiences at either specific, established intervals (e.g., end of day; known as interval-contingent designs) or at fixed and/or random intervals (known as signal-contingent designs). Interval-contingent designs may be best implemented for continuous phenomenon like affect (e.g., reports every night) or activities/experiences with typically fixed scheduling throughout the day, like eating behaviors (e.g., reports every morning, afternoon, evening). A signal-contingent design may...

Audience Segmentation Techniques

Audience Segmentation Techniques   Reference library

Rachel A. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health and Risk Message Design and Processing

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
6,196 words

...and interval variables, and it provides fit indices to guide decisions to determine which number of groups best fits the data. For these reasons, it has been considered the optimal technique for audience segmentation ( Maibach et al., 2011 ). The rest of this essay discusses empirical decisions with LCA in mind. Latent Class Analysis In brief, latent class analysis (LCA) is used to fit models in which a population is divided into mutually exclusive and exhaustive subgroups ( Collins & Lanza, 2010 ). It is conceptually similar to other latent variable...

Infant and Child Mortality

Infant and Child Mortality   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...and equity are somewhat hollow slogans in India. The NFHS data are particularly revealing about differentials by caste, a category that is supposed to be unimportant in modern India. This same national average of an IMR of 73 hides a rate of 83 for the scheduled castes and 84 for the scheduled tribes. All these figures become even better contextualized if one looks at the unrealized potential by taking IMRs in economically or socially ‘advantaged’ populations in India. For example, compare 83 and 84 to a rate of 33 for high SLI urban Indians and a...

Fertility

Fertility   Reference library

Michael Haines

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
5,766 words

...births or surviving children. Later in the transition parents must also resort to spacing, which involves lengthening birth intervals deliberately in order to achieve a small completed family. The study of birth intervals (the period between successive births) is often accomplished with the analysis “proximate determinants” of fertility behavior. These methods are designed to break down the female reproductive period and birth intervals into measurable, distinct, and meaningful components: age at marriage or entrance into a sexual union, age at menopause,...

survey

survey   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,110 words

...computer, at the time of interview. This saves both time and money in the overall survey process, but does mean that particular care must be taken over matters of questionnaire design at the outset, to ensure that there are no filtering or other errors in the final interview schedule. Most academic research consists of ad hoc surveys, carried out on a one-off basis, to address defined theoretical and other issues. Ad hoc surveys often employ the smallest sample size necessary to achieve representativeness, typically 2000 respondents for a national...

Environmental Benefits and Concerns of Center Pivot Irrigation

Environmental Benefits and Concerns of Center Pivot Irrigation   Reference library

Leonor Rodriguez Sinobas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
7,329 words
Illustration(s):
13

...interval for plant growth. This can be determined in situ and on a daily basis through the measurement of soil water content by probes deployed at different field locations within the root profile. Chemical Applications in CPIS. Chemigation has to do with the application of fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, and other chemicals dissolved in water. Soluble fertilizers, soil amendments, and pesticides are injected into the irrigation pipe, reducing labor costs and, in some cases, improving their application efficiency. Irrigation scheduling is...

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