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value

Subject: Philosophy

Philosophical concern with value has focused on three connected issues: first, on what sort of property or characteristic of something its ‘having value’ or ‘being of value’ is; second, on ...

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A Dictionary of Law (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Law
Length:
5 words

... n. Valuable consideration...

value

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A Dictionary of Marketing (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
51 words

... The benefit that a good or a service provides, as perceived and measured by the beholder. What one customer finds of value can be different from what another finds of value. Good marketing will sell a product based upon its perceived value to a target market. See unique value proposition...

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A Dictionary of Geography (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2023

... The importance, worth, or usefulness of something; its material or monetary worth. The governmentalization of value is the proliferation of tactics (programmes, laws, codes, standards, and institutionalized knowledges) that...

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A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
423 words

...and more materialistic). Collectively, cultural values constitute a value system . 3. ( value-orientation, value system ) (attitude research) An organizing principle held by an individual about appropriate or ethical behaviour; such values are regarded as deeper than attitudes . 4. ( economic value ) (economics) The price of something as determined by supply and demand. 5. A subjective judgement of worth in relation to price: see also price appeals . 6. For use value and exchange value in Marxist theory , see commodification ; ...

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A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
116 words

...value 1. Value = price × quantity. For example, if between two years prices quadruple and quantities in the economy increase by 25 per cent, the money value of gross domestic product rises to 4 × 1.25 = 5 times its former level. 2. A synonym for price. The theory of value is concerned with explaining the relative prices of goods. 3. A general term of praise, used in a phrase such as ‘good value’. Value in this sense refers to something similar to price but more important and more permanent. Advertisers claim that their goods represent ‘value for money’;...

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Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
371 words

... Classical economics distinguished among use value (or how useful an item is to a given person or situation), exchange value (which reflects its price on the market), and labor value (which reflects the amount of human effort invested in its production). In principle, labor value was held to explain exchange value, although this proved hard to demonstrate. Karl Marx contributed the further notion of surplus value , which reflects the difference between the price of the good over the cost of labor and raw materials. Surplus value, appropriated by...

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A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
994 words

...Philosophers have long debated whether values are independent of facts or whether facts—despite usually being seen as 'neutral' (value-free)—actually contain the values of those who produced them and those who observe them ( see fact-value distinction ). This debate has implications for research and teaching because if neither is simply about relaying facts then even the ‘purest’ or ‘hardest’ sciences must justify the value-based choices they unwittingly make when analysing and interpreting data. Value in the third sense pertains to what are taken to...

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A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... An expression of monetary worth of a particular object, or its power to command other things in...

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A Dictionary of Cultural Anthropology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
96 words

...value The relative worth of an object or service. The relationship between culture and the creation of value through exchange and work has long been a central concern of economic anthropology . Anthropologists have worked with concepts of value from economics and political-economy (such as those drawn from neoclassicism and Marxism), but have emphasized that: (1) the creation of value is a social process embedded in non-market exchanges and social institutions ( see substantivism ); and (2) the symbolic processes of culture shape the actual meanings...

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A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
995 words

...of shared values in maintaining social order . More generally, all sociology is concerned with value issues, and many of the classical writers—most notably Éile Durkheim and Max Weber —discussed the role of values in social research at some length. At this more philosophical level, the issues for sociology would seem to be twofold. First, since society itself is partially constituted through values, the study of sociology is in part the study of values. Second, since sociologists are themselves members of a society and presumably hold values (religious,...

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Nicholas Dent

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
530 words

... . Philosophical concern with value has focused on three connected issues: first, on what sort of property or characteristic of something its ‘having value’ or ‘being of value’ is; second, on whether having value is an objective or subjective matter, whether value reposes in the object or is a matter of how we feel towards it; third, on trying to say what things have value, are valuable. These concerns closely parallel concerns with the nature of good, from which value is seldom carefully distinguished in philosophical discussion, though the terms are...

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
48 words

... 1. Of a variable: e.g. a feature such as [Animate] is a variable with the values [+Animate] (animate) and [−Animate] (inanimate). 2. In the sense of French ‘valeur’, as used by Saussure , of the place or function of an element within a network of...

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A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
113 words

... To acknowledge some feature of things as a value is to take it into account in decision making, or in other words to be inclined to advance it as a consideration in influencing choice and guiding oneself and others. Those who see values as ‘subjective’ think of this in terms of a personal stance, occupied as a kind of choice, and immune to rational argument (although often, and curiously, deserving some kind of reverence and respect). Those who think of values as objective suppose that for some reason—requirements of rationality, human nature, God, or other...

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A Dictionary of Construction, Surveying and Civil Engineering (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

... 1. The degree to which an item, product, service, or event meets the desired performance criteria required by the client. 2. The degree of lightness of a...

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A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... have pointed out, however, placing a value on life in this way has given rise to a new form of governmentality that they both describe as biopower . In economics, it is Karl Marx , above all others, who has devoted the most effort to thinking through what value means. But his theory builds on a long line of philosophical inquiry, beginning with Aristotle who first observed that there is a difference between the use-value of a thing (what a thing is worth to a person who actually uses it) and the exchange-value of a thing (what another person would be...

Value

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Barbara Herrnstein Smith

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,457 words

...possible, posited, or even imagined valuing of them by any subjects. Although the idea of essential or intrinsic value is more closely associated with the humanistic disciplines—notably moral theory and aesthetics—than with the social sciences, various social theorists, including anthropologists, sociologists, and economists, have entertained the idea of an inherent and fixed value that is distinct both from fluctuating market price and from subjectively experienced or attributed value ( Appadurai, 1986 ). The idea of value as embodied labor could be explored...

Value

Value   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,234 words

...and fixed value that is distinct both from fluctuating market price and from subject-variable experienced or attributed value (Appadurai, 1986 ). The conception of value as embodied labor could be explored in this connection (Steedman et al., 1981 ), as could Karl Marx 's somewhat ambiguous allusions to use-value as a historically, subjectively, and otherwise variable attribute of objects and as a product or shadowy twin of their physical, material, and presumably objective properties. Complicating current conceptualizations of value are the...

value

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Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
1,991 words

... . Disciplines as varied as economics, philosophy, aesthetics, logic, linguistics, and via linguistics, semiotics all employ a concept of value, though with varying applications and meanings. In the work of Karl Marx , for example, the notion of value has foundational importance for an understanding of the dynamics of capitalism. Ferdinand de Saussure introduces the concept of linguistic value in his Course in General Linguistics ( 1916 ), in which it acts as the fulcrum of his general thesis about language. When Saussure attempts to explain linguistic...

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A Dictionary of Law Enforcement (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Law
Length:
4 words

... Valuable consideration...

Value

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Oxford Essential Quotations (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
544 words

... Value Because I'm worth it. Advertising slogan advertising slogan for L'Oreal, from mid 1980s Because I'm worth it Nothing that costs only a dollar is worth having. Elizabeth Arden 1876 – 1966 Canadian -born American businesswoman attributed; in Fortune October 1973 There is less in this than meets the eye. on a revival of Maeterlinck's play ‘Aglavaine and Selysette’ Tallulah Bankhead 1903 – 68 American actress Alexander Woollcott Shouts and Murmurs (1922) A living dog is better than a dead lion. The Bible (Authorized Version, 1611)...

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