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utility possibility frontier

The maximum attainable levels of utility for the consumers in an economy given the economy's endowment and technology. The utility possibility frontier can be constructed by taking each ...

utility possibility frontier

utility possibility frontier   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
79 words

...utility possibility frontier The maximum attainable levels of utility for the consumers in an economy given the economy’s endowment and technology. The utility possibility frontier can be constructed by taking each Pareto-efficient allocation and plotting the utility levels of the consumers at that allocation. Varying the allocation traces out the frontier. A point below the frontier is not Pareto efficient. The social optimum is the point on the frontier that maximizes a chosen social welfare function...

utility possibility frontier

utility possibility frontier  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The maximum attainable levels of utility for the consumers in an economy given the economy's endowment and technology. The utility possibility frontier can be constructed by taking each ...
social optimum

social optimum  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The point on the utility possibility frontier that maximizes social welfare. The social optimum is the allocation chosen by a benevolent social planner who is constrained only by the endowment of ...
social optimum

social optimum   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
58 words

...social optimum The point on the utility possibility frontier that maximizes social welfare . The social optimum is the allocation chosen by a benevolent social planner who is constrained only by the endowment of resources. If there are restrictions upon the policy instruments of the social planner the social optimum will not, in general, be...

Romanization

Romanization   Reference library

Antony J. S. Spawforth, Martin J. Millett, and Stephen Mitchell

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,568 words

...Revolution (2008). Antony J. S. Spawforth 1. In the west Romanization describes the processes by which indigenous peoples incorporated into the empire acquired cultural attributes which made them appear as Romans. There has been considerable recent debate about the continued utility for the term, which is now considered outmoded by many. Since the Romans had no single unitary culture but rather absorbed traits from others, including the conquered, the process was not a one-way passing of ideas and styles from Roman to indigene but rather an exchange which...

Romanization

Romanization   Reference library

Antony J. S. Spawforth, Martin J. Millett, and Stephen Mitchell

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,400 words

... creolization . Antony J. S. Spawforth 1. In the west Romanization describes the processes by which indigenous peoples incorporated into the empire acquired cultural attributes which made them appear as Romans. There has been considerable recent debate about the continued utility for the term, which is now considered outmoded by many. Since the Romans had no single unitary culture but rather absorbed traits from others, including the conquered, the process was not a one-way passing of ideas and styles from Roman to indigene but rather an exchange which...

Ecosystem Services

Ecosystem Services (The Business of Sustainability)   Reference library

Emma STEWART

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
3,247 words

...high and increasing. Poor hillside management and deforestation are leading to sedimentation of dams. The ecosystem services–based solutions emerging in the utility industry offer broad possibilities for improving the environment. Corporate real estate developers can use constructed wetlands for storm water and wastewater management and treatment, thus avoiding traditional infrastructure costs. Utilities could provide carbon storage on company property through reforestation or forest maintenance. A nongovernmental partner could measure and monitor the carbon...

Central Asia

Central Asia   Reference library

Mark David Luce

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
3,259 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the Russians frowned on many of the practices. In Turkestan the tsarists excelled in city planning. They completed new cities that were carefully planned and built near to the native ones. Built on the European model, they included parks, tree-lined boulevards, theaters, public utilities, and electricity. In 1888 the Trans-Caspian Railroad reached Samarkand, and the Orenburg-Tashkent Railroad was completed in 1905 . A Turkestan-Siberian Railroad was started later. Efforts to colonize the Kazakh steppes began in 1868 , when Russian peasants arrived. At the...

Segregation

Segregation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,468 words
Illustration(s):
2

...duplicate facilities. Generation after generation of white southerners learned and believed that nothing less than the present and future of Western civilization was at risk when the possibility of African American equality was raised. Mob violence in the form of lynching and race riots was the ultimate method of defending white individuals and communities against the possibility of social contact with African Americans. During the 1890s, lynch mobs killed over one hundred black people every year. Lynching has a long history in the United States, dating back to...

Meade, James Edward

Meade, James Edward (1907–95)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,023 words

...prices were known, it was easy to depict a country’s equilibrium in terms of a production possibility frontier and an indifference map (if one was prepared to make the judgements described above, such a map could be drawn). The problem was that, given the constraint imposed by there being only two dimensions on a page, it was difficult finding a way to represent equilibrium for two countries that had different preferences and different production possibility frontiers. Meade solved the problem by deriving indifference curves for imports and exports, and from...

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano (30 January 1882–12 April 1945)   Reference library

Philip Abbott

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,135 words

...in 1944 , Roosevelt was seriously ill, and he died on 12 April 1945 , shortly after attending a meeting with Allied leaders at Yalta. Although there was initial congressional support for these accords, the almost immediate advent of the Cold War led to a reevaluation of the utility and wisdom of FDR's policy of cooperation and compromise with the Soviet Union. FDR's legacy is still a controversial one owing, in part, to the fact that the two major initiatives of his administrations—the welfare state and international intervention—remain contested policies...

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano (30 January 1882–12 April 1945)   Reference library

Philip Abbott

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,130 words

...term in 1944, Roosevelt was seriously ill, and he died on 12 April 1945 , shortly after attending a meeting with Allied leaders at Yalta. Although there was initial congressional support for these accords, the almost immediate advent of the Cold War led to a reevaluation of the utility and wisdom of FDR's policy of cooperation and compromise with the Soviet Union. FDR's legacy is still a controversial one, owing in part to the fact that the two major initiatives of his administrations—the welfare state and international intervention—remain contested policies in...

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano   Reference library

Philip Abbott

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,152 words

...in 1944 , Roosevelt was seriously ill, and he died on 12 April 1945 , shortly after attending a meeting with Allied leaders at Yalta. Although there was initial congressional support for these accords, the almost immediate advent of the Cold War led to a reevaluation of the utility and wisdom of FDR’s policy of cooperation and compromise with the Soviet Union. FDR’s legacy is still a controversial one owing, in part, to the fact that the two major initiatives of his administrations—the welfare state and international intervention—remain contested policies...

Animal Husbandry

Animal Husbandry   Reference library

John R. Walton

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,485 words
Illustration(s):
1

...for hunting, one of a number of breeds fashioned to various and contrasting demands. Canine breeds designed to assist farmers have fared well, since the demand remains for their originally intended functions. Even so, many farm dog breeds are now selected for appearance, not utility, since such functions as flock guarding and droving are no longer required in most parts of the world. While other farm animals have not been immune to selection by fanciers for nonproductive traits, these tendencies have been balanced by the need for growth and performance. Changes...

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,119 words

...in 1944 , Roosevelt was seriously ill, and he died on 12 April 1945 , shortly after attending a meeting with Allied leaders at Yalta. Although there was initial congressional support for these accords, the almost immediate advent of the Cold War led to a reevaluation of the utility and wisdom of FDR's policy of cooperation and compromise with the Soviet Union. FDR's legacy is still a controversial one owing in part to the fact that the two major initiatives of his administrations, the welfare state and international intervention, remain contested policies...

Roman Forts and Fortifications

Roman Forts and Fortifications   Reference library

Gwyn Davies

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,281 words
Illustration(s):
1

...foundations of similarly impressive but entirely symbolic gateways can be seen elsewhere in the east, for example, at Scythopolis (Beth-Shean) and Gadara (Umm Qeis). The Roman rediscovery of the utility of city defenses qua defenses can be seen to stem from the crisis of the third century c.e. that demonstrated the vulnerability of the imperial core when the frontier systems failed. For example, apart from a few prestigious coloniae , the vast majority of Gallic cities had grown up untrammeled by walls and were therefore ill-equipped to repulse the barbarian...

Economy and Economic Theory, Roman

Economy and Economic Theory, Roman   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,970 words
Illustration(s):
1

...shaped decision making. The Roman elite's idealization of self-sufficiency, found in texts as varied as the agricultural handbooks of Cato and Varro, the poems of Martial, and the Satyricon of Petronius, used to be seen as directly opposed to the modern emphasis on maximizing utility and hence as a major impediment to economic development; this idealization of self-sufficiency can now be understood as a rational response to the conditions of uncertainty prevalent in the preindustrial Mediterranean, where it might not be wise to rely on the market to supply...

Legalist School

Legalist School   Reference library

YU Qiyu and Bill SIEVER

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...This is not because he loves his master. The farmhand says: “In this way, I shall have good soup, and money and cloth will come easily.” Thus, he expends his strength as if between them there were a bond of love such as that of father and son. Yet their hearts are centered on utility, and they both harbor the idea of serving themselves. (From “Collection of Legendary Stories” in “The Treatises of Han Fei Zi,” cited in Liao) Han Fei was an advocate of the absolute monarch. The absolute monarch needed the absolute authority of the ruler. Drawing on the ideas...

Haberler, Gottfried

Haberler, Gottfried (1900–95)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,404 words

...theoretical contribution was the reformulation of Ricardo's theory of comparative costs in his article ‘The Theory of Comparative Costs and its Use in the Defense of Free Trade’ ( 1930 ), in which he introduced the ‘production substitution curve’, today's production-possibility frontier or transformation curve. This concept can be found already in Barone ( 1908 ), but Haberler was the first who systematically applied it for a generalization of the theory of comparative costs as an instrument for the analysis of production-technological connections in...

Regime Theory

Regime Theory   Reference library

Benjamin Meiches and Raymond Hopkins

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,296 words

...a regime and the effect a regime has on the Pareto-frontier ( Krasner 1981 ). This view, while still strongly emphasizing the role of power in defining the formation of the regime, indicates that a regime might emerge in response to an ideal balance or distribution of relative gains rather than in response to the relative benefit to a single hegemonic state. In short, it opens the possibility that a regime may emerge in the absence of hegemony if only to impede the formation of a less attractive Pareto-frontier. Consequently, this view provides a strong...

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