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Overview

urbanization

The increase in the proportion of a population living in urban areas and the process by which an area loses its rural character and way of life. Urbanization is a consequence mainly of ...

Urbanisation

Urbanisation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
705 words

... was pronounced from the beginning of European settlement, but the forces which made it so were different in important ways from those which propelled urbanisation in Europe. During the nineteenth century, capital, labour, technology, and institutions were transferred from industrial Europe to the resource-rich regions of Australasia, southern Africa, Latin America, and North America. Wherever European traders and settlers produced a surplus for market, towns grew; the larger the surplus and the more productive the activity which created it, the...

urbanization

urbanization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... The social, demographic , and economic processes involved in the growth of towns and cities...

urbanization

urbanization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
184 words

... Narrowly defined, urbanization refers to city formation. The earliest cities date from about the fourth millennium BCE. In the Middle Ages the expansion of long-distance trade and mercantile capitalism stimulated the growth of major European cities. There is significant controversy about the relationship between urbanization, feudal decline, and the growth of capitalism . Most sociological attention has focused on the large-scale urbanization accompanying industrialization and the emergence of modern societies. Although there is no invariant...

urbanization

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A Dictionary of Construction, Surveying and Civil Engineering (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

... 1. The changing of an area, developing it into a town or city. 2. The accommodation of attitude, culture, and other changes that enable city...

urbanization

urbanization (China)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management in China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
88 words

... (China) The process of increasing the percentage of the population that lives in urban areas. Although China’s economic growth in the 1990s and 2000s was built on an influx of labour from rural areas, many of these rural migrants remained rural rather than urban residents. By 2010 , China was considered under-urbanized compared to countries at a similar level of development. Chinese policymakers therefore focused on transforming rural migrants to urban residents starting in 2014 . Urbanization became a key goal in implementing structural change...

urbanization

urbanization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... The increase in the proportion of the population residing in towns, brought about by migration of rural populations into towns and cities, and/or the higher urban levels of natural increase resulting from the greater proportion of people of childbearing age in cities. R. Bilsborrow (1997) discusses the problems in the definition of urbanization, and the difficulties of making international comparisons. Start with Solecki and Leichenko (2006) Environment 48 , who give an excellent overview, while also discussing urbanization and sustainability....

urbanization

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A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
91 words

... The absolute and/or relative growth in the number of people living in urban settlements, with reference to a single country, region, or the world as a whole. To this basic demographic fact many analysts have proposed related economic, social, and cultural transformations, many of which can also be described as modernization ( see urbanism ). But attempts to identify simple linear relationships between urban growth and such factors as industrialization or the decline in face-to-face interaction have been frustrated by the great variety of changes...

urbanization

urbanization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
211 words

... The increase in the proportion of a population living in urban areas and the process by which an area loses its rural character and way of life. Urbanization is a consequence mainly of rural-urban migration. This process began in Europe in the 19th century. Although large cities existed before 1800 , the vast majority of the world’s population lived in small, often self-sufficient village communities. Industrialization and population growth in Europe in the 19th century resulted in radical change: sometimes the excess peasant population moved to...

urbanization

urbanization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...urbanization The process by which a rural region or town evolves into a city. The distinction is often ill-defined and is determined partly by population size, partly by the existence of facilities such as a network of public transport, news media, and a sense of identification with the place as a city rather than a community. It may become sociologically and politically significant if associated with a sense of alienation from the evolving city, and there may be adverse health effects if expanding populations outgrow available health care resources and facilities...

urbanization

urbanization   Reference library

Alan F. J. Artibise

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
511 words

... . Canada's first urban settlement, Quebec City, is almost four centuries old, yet the image the country evokes is still that of an immense, unsettled wilderness. On postcards home, visitors write about the fresh air, the wide open spaces, the clean water, the magnificent natural scenery. Despite its reputation as the world's largest country, however, where wilderness landscapes are commonplace, it is in Canada's villages, towns, and cities that one can best discover the nature of the country. Urbanization is a complex process that results in...

Urbanization

Urbanization   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...clear that the role of urbanization on water cycle processes is critical in diagnosing and predicting weather and future climate change. Further, urban-affected rainfall modifies the hydrologic response in cities as well, through flash flooding and surface runoff variability. Even the carbon and nitrogen cycles are responsive to the urban environment. The impact of urbanization on net primary productivity ( NPP ), a measure of carbon, and its consequences on carbon balance and food production has recently been quantified. Urbanization is occurring on the most...

Urbanization

Urbanization   Reference library

Christopher LING

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
3,766 words

... Australia and New Zealand conform to the pattern found in the Americas, with a 2005 urbanization rate of 88 percent and a projection for 2050 of 93 percent. The various other island states that make up Oceania have highly variable rates of urbanization, but for the most part the absolute numbers involved are very small. The most urbanized nation is Nauru (100 percent urbanized), but the total population is only twenty-four thousand. Current rates of urbanization are relatively low and relatively stable compared with, for example, sub-Saharan Africa,...

Urbanization

Urbanization   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,866 words

... This entry contains two subentries: An Overview ; and Pre-Colonial Urbanization . An Overview Urbanization is a concept or phenomenon that is difficult to define. This quandary is partly a product of the wide range of meanings people give to it. For instance, urbanization has been seen as a process of transformation of rural communities into urban centers. Social scientists therefore see it in terms of increase in population and human social and economic activities. To others, urbanization is measured predominantly in terms of availability of...

urbanization

urbanization   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
311 words

... is a feature of 19th-century social life that barely features in George Eliot 's fiction. The course of her own life took her from rural *Warwickshire to *London , and she often remarked on how she found the urban environment oppressive; but in setting most of her works back several decades from the time of writing to the Midland villages and towns that she had known in childhood, she did not have to confront one of the major social developments of her own lifetime. Urbanization is alluded to in Silas Marner : when Silas returns after thirty...

Urbanization

Urbanization   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,090 words

... . The development of modern societies is inextricably linked to the process of urbanization throughout the world. Any understanding of the politics of the world must therefore take stock of this agglomerative process and its effects. Urbanization commenced with the Neolithic revolution in food production, some ten thousand years ago or so. The mastery over food production freed a number of persons from direct subsistence activities and created a basis for a more complex division of labor, the concentration of population in one place, and the...

Urbanization.

Urbanization.   Reference library

Thomas J. Sugrue

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,513 words

...Urbanization. Over four centuries, the United States gradually emerged as a predominantly urban nation. Since 1920 , a majority of Americans have lived in urban places. The process of urbanization—the growth and settlement of cities—has been the result of interactions among technological and economic change and such social processes as population growth, immigration , and internal migration. Public policy has also played a decisive role in the transformation of urban areas. The physical form and social structure of cities have reflected conscious choices by...

urbanization

urbanization   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,665 words

...restricted to single‐case studies and biased towards the architectural and monumental. Comparative studies of the history of Irish urbanization have been late in coming and have tended to be specific as to period. Medieval debates have centred on pre‐ Norman urban origins; the nature and functions of the Anglo‐Norman boroughs; the character and fortunes of the trading cities; and the almost complete absence of urbanization in Gaelic and Gaelicized areas. Early modern studies have been concerned with the fate of the Old English urban communities; the role...

Urbanization

Urbanization   Reference library

Helen Safa

The Oxford Encyclopedia Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
1,312 words

... . Urbanization introduced a new division of labor into human society. Cities differ from rural areas not only in size and density but also in degree of specialization and stratification. Cities facilitated the formation of an urban elite that was no longer engaged in direct production of food and other human necessities for subsistence and instead governed society, either as a theocratic ruling class (as in the old cities of West Africa) or as an administrative or merchant class (as in the mercantalist medieval cities of southern Europe). Women...

Urbanization

Urbanization   Reference library

Paul M Hohenberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
5,816 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the traditional sense is often announced. Consider: from cities without urbanization, then, to urbanization without cities? Nevertheless, in this article, the term urban will be used as an adjective that situates something within the context of a town or city (this last a loosely quantitative distinction, used somewhat differently in British and American English, and absent in French and German). Without providing a great many numbers, a sense of the quantitative progress of urbanization may be given. The urban populations of preindustrial societies rarely...

urbanization

urbanization   Reference library

F. S. Schwarzbach

The Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,184 words

...well a sense of the breakneck pace of urbanization in 19th-century Britain. Indeed, the science of statistics itself emerged in the first decades of the century largely as a response to the need to comprehend the dramatic changes of the first Western society simultaneously to undergo urbanization and industrialization . The first statistical societies were founded in Manchester and London in 1833 and 1834 , respectively, dedicated to what Carlyle termed with horror ‘counting-up and estimating men's motives’: but how else but by enumeration and...

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