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Overview

urban morphology

The form, function, and layout of the city. Geographic attributes—including shape, density, and pattern of land use categories—all reflect the outcome of the urbanization process (Longley ...

urban morphology

urban morphology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... morphology The form, function, and layout of the city. Geographic attributes—including shape, density, and pattern of land use categories—all reflect the outcome of the urbanization process ( Longley and Mesev (2002) Papers Reg. Sci. 81, 1 ). C. Boone and A. Modarres (2006) provide an account and explanation of urban morphology through...

urban morphology

urban morphology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
60 words

... morphology The shape of cities in terms of their form, function, and layout, for example, street patterns. The study of urban morphology was pioneered by Lewis Mumford who was interested in how cities changed over time. Later exponents focused on spatial models of city form ( see concentric zone model ) and the detailed investigation of townscapes...

urban morphology

urban morphology  

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference

... morphology Refers to the shape of a city, including its architecture, layout of streets, and different densities of habitation. It is often distinguished in urban studies from functional zonation —the pattern of land use in a...

urban morphology

urban morphology  

The form, function, and layout of the city. Geographic attributes—including shape, density, and pattern of land use categories—all reflect the outcome of the urbanization process (Longley and Mesev ...
Scottish Local and Family History

Scottish Local and Family History   Quick reference

David moody

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,622 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...C. Smout (ed.), People and Woods in Scotland ( 2002 ). Geographers’ studies of the morphology of towns and suburbs are especially welcome after the noted preoccupation with rural pasts, and have prompted, for the first time, a significant use of Sasine Registers (records of property transactions) and Dean of Guild registers in studies of housebuilding and the interrelationship of municipal and private capital. The works of R. G. Rodger capture these dynamics of urban development, as in The Transformation of Edinburgh: Land, Property and Trust in the...

Dutch Family Names

Dutch Family Names   Reference library

Leendert Brouwer, Peter McClure, and Charles Gehring

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
11,476 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...archaic form Dirksz , by the way, recently returned to the Netherlands from one of the colonies. Morphological and Phonetic Variation We mentioned earlier that patronymics were often based on short forms of Germanic or Christian personal names. Heinric or Henricus have not only produced forms such as Hendriks (also spelled hendrix ), but also abbreviated forms such as hein and Heynen . In past times, before family names became fixed, these morphological variants were often used interchangeably of the same person, as were variants using inflectional...

Landscape History: The Countryside

Landscape History: The Countryside   Quick reference

H. S. A. Fox

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,175 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of both landscape and society in even earlier periods (before and up to the 12th century) the controlled use of evidence surviving today in the living landscape (or shown on relatively recent maps) becomes very important indeed, so sparse are the written materials. The morphology of settlement patterns and of individual settlement sites, the courses taken by the boundaries of parishes, manors , and townships, the siting of churches in relation to settlement (a subject which should be studied alongside church status and church dedications), the networks...

Finnish and Estonian Family Names

Finnish and Estonian Family Names   Reference library

Sirkka Paikkala

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
5,112 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and Örn ‘eagle’; Ljungdahl (‘heather’ + ‘valley’) by Långdahl (‘long’ + ‘valley’) and Dahl ; Ugla ‘owl’ by Uglander ; Wikman (‘bay’ + ‘man’) by Wik and Vigell ; and Furuqvist (‘pinewood’ + ‘twig’) by Tall ‘pine’. Some of these take the form of simple morphological reductions, as also illustrated in Hag from Hagström ( hage ‘grove’ + ‘stream’), Trogen from Trogenman (‘trusted’ + ‘man’), Sten from Gråsten (‘grey + ‘stone’), Blom from Blomström (‘flower’ + ‘stream’), and Nisk from the soldier’s Eastern Finnish surname ...

English, Scottish, and Anglo-Irish Family Names

English, Scottish, and Anglo-Irish Family Names   Reference library

Peter McClure and Patrick Hanks

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
13,029 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and the law courts, but already by the end of the 13th century most of the aristocracy and gentry probably spoke English as their usual means of discourse with an admixture of French vocabulary. Norman surnames were freely Anglicized and Scotticized both in pronunciation and morphology, as can be seen in names like beecham (from Anglo-Norman French de Beauchamp ), dangerfield (from Anglo-Norman French d’Angerville ), and beaton (from Scoto-Norman French de Betun ). When the Normans reached Ireland, something similar happened, though in a more limited...

functional zonation

functional zonation  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Refers in urban studies to the pattern of land use in a city, whether with regard to types of economic activity or the geographical segregation of groups along ethnic or class lines. See also urban ...
planted town

planted town  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Ge]An urban settlement that was deliberately constructed to a preconceived plan. In some cases, for example Salisbury in England, started in ad 1219, they were established on a totally new site. In ...
urban topography

urban topography  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
British local history has its roots in the countryside, and it is significant that the historical study of †towns as physical places has often used rural metaphors without any sense of incongruity. ...
functional zonation

functional zonation   Reference library

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
38 words

...zonation Refers in urban studies to the pattern of land use in a city, whether with regard to types of economic activity or the geographical segregation of groups along ethnic or class lines. See also urban morphology...

planted town

planted town ([Ge])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
77 words

...town [Ge] An urban settlement that was deliberately constructed to a preconceived plan. In some cases, for example Salisbury in England, started in ad 1219 , they were established on a totally new site. In other cases they substantially enlarge an existing settlement. Some planted towns had a regular form with chequerboard, ladder pattern, or concentric street grids that determined their morphology; others were more irregular and were often built around a central open area or...

pre-industrial city

pre-industrial city   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
69 words

...city An urban settlement characteristic of the period before the Industrial Revolution , namely feudal societies ( see feudalism ). Although such cities were very diverse, Gideon Sjoberg proposed that they shared similar social and morphological features. These included elite residences at the centre surrounded by lower-class neighbourhoods where households were grouped by occupation, ethnicity, or extended family, thus inverting the concentric zone model of industrial...

urban geography

urban geography   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
705 words

...Despite some ambivalence about the term ‘urban geography’, over the past sixty years urban geographers have developed some distinct and ongoing themes ( Hall and Barrett 2012 ). Perhaps the most important has been the study of the internal social and spatial structure of cities, in part inspired by ideas from the Chicago School. Urban morphology considers the spatial layout and appearance of cities in different historical and national contexts. It can be extended by typologies of different kinds of urban area, for example, edge city , exurb, or...

urbanism

urbanism   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Architecture (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
316 words

... 1. Term much used in the 1980s, based on Le Corbusier ’s dogmas concerning town-planning. 2. Urban way of life compared with life in the country. 3. Approach to urban design taking into account the need to respond with sensitivity to urban morphologies: Léon ( 1946–  ) and Rob ( 1939–  ) Krier have been in the vanguard of the movement to treat urban fabric in a more positive and less destructive way than was propounded by International Modernism , the Athens Charter , and CIAM . The Kriers and their colleagues argued that context was...

urban modelling

urban modelling   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
330 words

... modelling The production of models about the form and functioning of cities. Geographers and sociologists have long been interested in the ways in which urban areas are structured, work, and evolve. The Chicago School of urban sociology, through the work of Ernest Burgess and Homer Hoyt, produced initial theoretical models of the urban morphology of cities, detailing how they were divided up into discrete zones and the relationships between them ( see concentric zone models ). These models were quite simplistic and static, and in the 1960s...

acronym

acronym (Morphology)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
112 words

... Morphology . 1. Strictly, a word formed from (i) the initial letters of other words, or from (ii) a mixture of initials and syllables, e.g. (i) AFAIK (=as far as I know) NATO (=North Atlantic Treaty Organization) NIMBY (=not in my back yard) (ii) radar (=radio detection and ranging) yuppie (=young urban professional + diminutive ending) Sometimes included in the general term abbreviation . 2. More loosely, an abbreviation pronounced as a string of letters, especially letters that stand for the name of an organization or institution,...

Digital Terrain Model (DTM)

Digital Terrain Model (DTM)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
123 words

...model are generated through a variety of surveying and photogrammetry techniques. A DTM is used in a GIS as the basis for displaying morphological features and to model issues such as flooding, wind effects, and land use. A related model is the Digital Surface Model (DSM) that includes the heights on features on the ground such as buildings and vegetation, which is used to visualize and model landscapes and urban...

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