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urban ecology

The application of the principles of ecology to a study of urban environments. See also human ecology. Urban ecologists look at individual areas of the city in the context of the whole ...

urban ecology

urban ecology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... ecology The application of the principles of ecology to a study of urban environments. See also human ecology . Urban ecologists look at individual areas of the city in the context of the whole city, and focus on the way a population organizes itself, and the way it adapts to change. Just as ecologists study the way in which an ecosystem seeks to re-establish equilibrium after a sudden alteration, so urban ecologists assume that people will try to re-establish equilibrium after sudden change. Urban ecology has been criticized by many; among them E....

urban ecology

urban ecology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
161 words

... ecology 1. The study of urban social life and land-use patterns using insights and concepts drawn from the ecological science of plants, animals, and their communities. 2. The scientific study of ecological processes in cities. Lying at the intersection of human ecology and sociology, urban ecology in the first sense was consolidated by the Chicago School in the years after the First World War. The leading proponents were Robert Park and Ernest W. Burgess. Much of their diverse work centred on three kinds of study. First, urban ecologists explored...

urban ecology

urban ecology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
271 words

... ecology Urban ecology, pioneered by Chicago sociologists in the 1920s, was central to the development of human ecology . Indeed the two terms are often used interchangeably. Urban ecology applies principles derived from biological science to the explanation of spatial distribution in urban populations. This is said to result from ‘biotic’ competition for territorial advantage by human groups, each constituted by social basis, for example, common class position or ethnicity. Groups occupy distinctive ‘natural areas’ or neighbourhoods. The concentric...

urban political ecology

urban political ecology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... political ecology If one component of political ecology is the study of political struggles for control over natural resources, urban political ecology is easy to define, and Swyngedouw and Heynen are its begetters: ‘the political programme of urban political ecology is to enhance the democratic content of socio-environmental construction’ ( Swyngedouw and Heynen (2003) Antipode 35, 5 ). N. Heynen (2006) calls for ‘more equitable distribution of social power and a more inclusive mode of the production of nature’; see Myers (2008) Urb. Geog. 29,...

urban ecology

urban ecology  

The application of the principles of ecology to a study of urban environments. See also human ecology. Urban ecologists look at individual areas of the city in the context of the whole city, and ...
urban political ecology

urban political ecology  

If one component of political ecology is the study of political struggles for control over natural resources, urban political ecology is easy to define, and Swyngedouw and Heynen are its begetters: ...
Land

Land   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,951 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of improvement.’ And beyond the borders of the islands of Britain, the colonial production of commodities significantly affected the lives of agricultural workers. The example of the consumption and production of sugar epitomizes an economy which constructs a global economic ecology. The sugar produced by slave and indentured labour in the British-controlled colonies of the West Indies became a part of the staple diet of the English labouring class, who were now attracted to the stimulants of tea and coffee with sugar, in part to compensate for nutritional...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,179 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...The Captain Swing rioters of 1830–1 , who broke the threshing machines which threatened winter employment, are credited with finally tipping opinion towards poor law reform [ see *riots ]. Manufacturing districts and areas of rapid population growth had their own distinctive ecology of disturbance and violence. Machine-breaking erupted periodically in the north and south-west of England as an attempt to protect the existing organization of the textile industry [ see *Luddism ]. Riots reflected complex political and economic relationships embedded in local...

Forging an Identity: The Emergence of Ancient Israel

Forging an Identity: The Emergence of Ancient Israel   Reference library

Lawrence E. Stager

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
19,872 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...due more to culture than to ecology. The Mycenaeans and later Greeks valued swine and preferred pork in their diet, a preference brought by the Philistines to Canaan in the twelfth century. It is probably then, the biblical period of “the judges,” that the Israelites developed their taboo against pork consumption, in part to differentiate themselves from their Philistine neighbors; circumcision was another such distinctive cultural marker. Urban Imposition ...

Kinship and Kingship: The Early Monarchy

Kinship and Kingship: The Early Monarchy   Reference library

Carol Meyers

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
20,793 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...state. The urban architecture of Iron IIA was distinctive, as were the cities themselves. The preceding Iron I period saw deurbanization throughout Palestine. The rise of a state system in the tenth century bce coincided with an urban revival within the boundaries of the Israelite national territory. Most of the new urban centers were built on the sites of the old Bronze Age cities, although a few represent the continuation of Iron I village sites. The Iron II cities in some ways continue the Bronze Age urban traditions in their layout and...

Liberation Theology: Latin America

Liberation Theology: Latin America   Reference library

M. Daniel Carroll R.

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,826 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
10

...liberationists who seek to pursue with renewed energy themes that now are emerging with increasing relevancy in the nascent fragile democracies of Latin America—particularly the status and options of women (not totally ignored in the past, but now receiving greater attention), ecology, and the indigenous. Richard, for instance, believes that liberation hermeneutics has much to offer the elaboration of a theology for the indigenous and their struggle for civil and religious rights. Liberationists who desire to explore this area are also considering the...

Bitter Lives: Israel in and out of Egypt

Bitter Lives: Israel in and out of Egypt   Reference library

Carol A. Redmount

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
16,877 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Sinai and a northern one along the Mediterranean coast (although Exod. 13.17–18 expressly states that the latter, anachronistically called “the way of the land of the Philistines,” was not taken by the Israelites). Recent studies emphasizing both the modern and the past ecology and ethnography of the Sinai Peninsula suggest, however, that four major east-west routes ran through Sinai in antiquity. The northernmost hugs the Mediterranean coast; the other three follow desert wadis, the main channels for water and communication through the huge, barren...

ecological succession

ecological succession  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A term used in urban ecology, denoting the replacement of one dominant group or activity by another, following an invasion of the territory of the latter by the former. See also concentric zone ...
ecological competition

ecological competition  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A term derived from the biological sciences to denote the process of interaction between social groups, each seeking to gain access to a limited supply of the necessities of life, such as living ...
ecological invasion

ecological invasion  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A term referring to the process by which social groups or activities which are better adapted to a given environment than are its existing inhabitants or activities enter and eventually dominate it. ...
invasion-succession model

invasion-succession model  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A theoretical construct, setting out the sequence of competitive social actions by which a human group or social activity comes to occupy and dominate a territory, formerly dominated by another group ...
factorial ecology

factorial ecology  

The investigation of urban spatial structure by factor analysis. The classic study is Murdie's (1969) U. Chicago Res. Paper 116. For the problems associated with factorial ecology, see ...
urban sociology

urban sociology  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Sociological concern with urbanization began with sociology itself, for it was the rapidly growing 19th-century industrial cities that first supported those social relationships and structures which ...
invasion and succession

invasion and succession  

1 A model of change used in urban ecology to represent the effects of immigration on the social structure of an urban area. Invasion and succession involve a chain reaction, with each preceding ...
human ecology

human ecology  

An approach whereby the human social system and the ecosystem of the planet are seen as a mesh of reinforcing connections, each influencing and being influenced by the others. See G. G. Marten (2001).

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