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Urban

Subject: Religion

(d. 230), pope and martyr. This pope, who was elected in 222, died a martyr and was buried in the cemetery of Callistus, has been confused with another Urban, who was buried on ...

Baltics

Baltics   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Stephen C . Lithuania Ascending: A Pagan Empire within East-Central Europe, 1295–1345 . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Urban, William . The Livonian Crusade . 2d ed. Chicago: Lithuanian Research and Studies Center, 2004. Urban, William . Tannenberg and After: Lithuania, Poland, and the Teutonic Order in Search of Immortality . 3d ed. Chicago: Lithuanian Research and Studies Center, 2003. William Urban Historiography (500–1300) Because of a lack of written records, the study of the military history of the Baltics before the very end of the...

Urban Renewal

Urban Renewal   Reference library

Christopher Klemek

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
8,313 words

...recent of which can be gleaned in a special issue of the Journal of Urban History ( May 2013 ) dedicated to “thinking through urban renewal” (see also the scholarly responses published in Journal of Urban History [ July 2014 ]). Christopher Klemek, Transatlantic Collapse of Urban Renewal: Postwar Urbanism from New York to Berlin ( 2011 ) charts the rise and fall of the urban renewal order, and places the US experience in comparative, transnational context. Many key texts on urban renewal straddle the line between primary and secondary sources but...

urban

urban   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Construction, Surveying and Civil Engineering (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

... The built-up areas such as towns and...

urban

urban   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... Relating to, characteristic of, or situated in a city . See also suburban...

Urban

Urban   Reference library

Concise Oxford Dictionary of Family Names in Britain

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
29 words

... 1881: 43; London, Surrey, and Sussex; Durham. English: relationship name from the comparatively rare Middle English personal name Urban , Latin Urbanus , from an adjective meaning ‘of the...

urban

urban   Reference library

Garner's Modern English Usage (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
96 words

... ; urbane . Urban = (1) of, relating to, or located in a city; or (2) characteristic of city life. Urbane = suave; sophisticated; debonair. Occasionally urbane is misused for urban —e.g.: “Looking at a computer as a miracle machine is akin to spouting the glories of dense urbane [read urban ] living or fossil fuels.” James Hague , “Maybe You Just Need a File Box and a Typewriter,” Countryside & Small Stock J. , July 1995 , at 37. Language-Change Index urbane misused for urban : Stage 1 Current ratio in print ( urban areas vs. ...

urban

urban   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2023

... In medieval Europe, for example, there was a clear-cut boundary between urban and rural, usually in the form of a wall. Subsequently, towns have progressively overflowed their municipal boundaries. In the 1960s, UNO introduced the concept of the urban agglomeration (UK—urban area; France— unité ; Germany— Verdichtungsraum ) in order to harmonize the statistical definitions of urban settlements from one country to the next. The extensive suburban sprawling based on mass car ownership led to the concepts of daily urban systems , or SMSA (Standard...

Urban

Urban   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

... , Pope Urban I , of whom very little is known, except that he was elected Pope in 222 , and was martyred in Rome in 230 . In The Second Nun's Tale Chaucer presents him as the leader of the persecuted early Christians, hiding ‘among the seintes buryeles’, the catacombs. At the time of the Tale's probable composition the Pope in Rome was Urban VI (1378–87), and it has been suggested (but not universally accepted) that Chaucer was alluding to this, and expressing a hope for the ending of the...

Urban

Urban   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... Urban guerrilla A guerrilla operating in towns and cities and involved in kidnapping, bombing or the like. The term dates from the 1960s, ‘urban’ indicating the typical area of operations, as distinct from the more traditional rural terrain. See also guerrilla war . Urbanists See franciscans . Urban legend or myth A term current from the 1980s to denote a piece of modern folklore in the form of a widely known story, often macabre in nature. Such stories are so called because they relate to modern urban society. They are largely apocryphal, but may...

Urban

Urban   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Saints (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
119 words

... ( d. 230 ), pope and martyr . This pope, who was elected in 222 , died a martyr and was buried in the cemetery of Callistus, has been confused with another Urban, who was buried on the Via Nomentana. Also the mistake was made of assuming that the Acts of St Cecilia were genuine and so the account in the Liber Pontificalis contains apocryphal material. It seems that we know virtually nothing about this pope beyond the fact of his martyrdom. Feast: 25 May , in the Roman calendar until 1969 , in the Sarum missal and other medieval English calendars....

Urban

Urban   Reference library

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
102 words

... US frequency (2010): 20058 German, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Croatian, Slovenian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, English, French, and Jewish (eastern Ashkenazic); Hungarian ( Urbán ): from a personal name, Latin Urbanus ‘city dweller’ (a derivative of urbs ‘town, city’), borne by a 4th-century Christian saint, the patron saint of vines, and by seven early popes. As a Jewish surname, this is an adoption of the Polish personal name. In North America, this surname may also be a shortened form of Slavic patronymics and other derivatives from the name Urban , e.g....

Parks in Urban America

Parks in Urban America   Reference library

David Schuyler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
11,043 words

...Parks in Urban America Early Parks William Penn’s 1682 plan for Philadelphia reserved five squares as neighborhood breathing spaces, and James Oglethorpe’s 1733 plan for Savannah established a ward system, with each neighborhood organized around a public square. Other urban spaces evolved from more prosaic uses to become parks: the Boston Common, for example, was originally a pasture for cows and became the location for military musters in the 18th century; only in the 19th century did it become a handsome park surrounded by four wide, planted malls for...

Politics in Urban America after 1945

Politics in Urban America after 1945   Reference library

Lily Geismer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
12,290 words

...of the early, traditional literature on urban politics, with a large portion of it written in the postwar era itself. 81 The fields of urban planning, sociology, and geography have also explored questions of urban politics and the political economy of cities. 82 A rich literature on urban renewal and urban redevelopment of the postwar era exists within both political science and history. Political scientists first explored the topic of growth coalitions, which was subsequently addressed and expanded upon by urban historians. 83 Both historians and...

Urban Exceptionalism in the American South

Urban Exceptionalism in the American South   Reference library

David Goldfield

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
8,384 words
Illustration(s):
2

...for many antebellum Southern urban dwellers. The Southern urban economy hummed along on the foundation of slavery. Slave labor tilled the fields and harvested the crops transported to urban ports. The institution of slavery also proved malleable in an urban environment. Enslaved people worked in the mines, tended blast furnaces in factories, stemmed tobacco, carted goods, loaded ships, maintained railroad equipment, and performed a range of semiskilled and skilled work in the urban economy. Slavery underwent a mutation in the urban milieu that rendered it as...

Politics in Urban America before 1940

Politics in Urban America before 1940   Reference library

James J. Connolly

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
9,474 words

...familiar figure and the archetypally corrupt urban politician. 9 In the wake of the Tweed Ring scandal a new term became part of the standard political vocabulary, one that captured the social dynamics of the debate over the character of urban politics. By the end of the 1870s, reformers had popularized use of the term “machine” to describe party organizations. Although it was not exclusively applied to city politics, the notion of “machine” politics, or the “political machine,” became closely associated with urban party organizations. In some respects it was...

Public Housing in Urban America

Public Housing in Urban America   Reference library

D. Bradford Hunt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
8,206 words

...welfare program. Overt and structural racism, misguided policy choices, and the politics of the US welfare state deeply undermined projects, turning them into underfunded, badly maintained warehouses for the urban poor. With their often bleak architecture and disproportionately African American tenancy, “the projects” became racialized shorthand for urban poverty, imprinted on the built environment in concrete form. But generalizations about public housing are often misleading. The program evolved considerably over time and produced a wide range of outcomes. Cities...

urban runoff

urban runoff   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... runoff Runoff that is generated from urban areas...

urban development

urban development   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... development The development of fabric and infrastructure in an urban area...

urban district

urban district   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... district A subdivision of a county that covers an urban area in the United...

urban forestry

urban forestry   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... forestry The management of naturally occurring and planted trees in urban areas...

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