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Overview

unitary transformation

A transformation that has the form O′ = UOU −1, where O is an operator, U is a unitary matrix and U −1 is its reciprocal, i.e. if the matrix obtained by ...

unitary transformation

unitary transformation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Physics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Physics
Length:
128 words

...unitary transformation A transformation that has the form O ′= UOU −1 , where O is an operator, U is a unitary matrix and U −1 is its reciprocal, i.e. if the matrix obtained by interchanging rows and columns of U and then taking the complex conjugate of each entry, denoted U + , is the inverse of U ; U + = U −1 . The inverse of a unitary transformation is itself a unitary transformation. Unitary transformations are important in quantum mechanics . In the Hilbert space formulation of states in quantum mechanics a unitary transformation...

unitary transformation

unitary transformation  

A transformation that has the form O′ = UOU−1, where O is an operator, U is a unitary matrix and U−1 is its reciprocal, i.e. if the matrix obtained by interchanging rows and columns of U and then ...
Medicine

Medicine   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
3,985 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...dissolution of the medical corporations. The Jacobins had grandiose plans for the total transformation of all medical institutions and the medical profession, which involved throwing the profession open to all. Partly as a consequence of this, radical medical change occurred in France, above all in Paris, where a new hospital system was established stressing anatomy, pathology, and statistics, and therefore accenting the scientific study of disease. No such transformations, however, occurred in Britain. In medical politics, as in politics in general, the ...

Enlightenment

Enlightenment   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of enquiry whose earlier vibrancy gave their Enlightenment its character: henceforth what had been creative intellectual tensions in the decades before the French Revolution became impossible strains. In retrospect, Rational Dissent had balanced irreconcilables. Although never a unitary movement, its dominant trend had been represented by Price and Priestley . The explosion of loyalist rage against these two after 1790 demonstrated the naïvety of their faith in providential optimism and unfettered enquiry. Some of the radical, secular, and religious...

Scottish Local and Family History

Scottish Local and Family History   Quick reference

David moody

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,622 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...is examined in Cecil Sinclair , Tracing Scottish Local History ( 1994 ), which can now be supplemented by a range of online search guides. Equivalents of the English county record offices appeared on a large scale only after local government reorganization in 1974 . The unitary authorities set up in 1995 are the current custodians. Holdings of these and most other archives of interest to local and family researchers were listed in Exploring Scottish History ( 1999 ), now in part superseded by the Scottish Archive Network online catalogue of over 50...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
12,975 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...schools and homes, individuals and institutions have seen the book as a bulwark against spiritual decline and secular democracy. Yet American history has witnessed an ever-expanding array of religious, ethnic, occupational, political, and regional ties, which complicate any unitary definition of national culture. That multiplicity of collective identities, as well as the differences among the intermediaries themselves, has worked to foster a wider range of meanings, purposes, and settings for reading. 2 The colonial period: a transatlantic world of books...

Staffordshire

Staffordshire  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Is one of the counties most affected by the industrial revolution. The county town has never dominated the shire. In pre‐Conquest days, it was overshadowed by Tamworth and Lichfield, in modern times ...
Aurobindo, Sri

Aurobindo, Sri (1872–1950)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
2,027 words

...indwell one another, change toward more unitary levels of consciousness in one person can make it easier for change to be effected in others, as well as in the environment. Recognizing that change can be detrimental as well as for the better, he emphasizes the need for each person to undertake the inner work responsibly, in the awareness that inner change and outer eventuate together. Further, Sri Aurobindo holds that when a sufficient number of people are committed to participating consciously in transformation toward the higher “integral spiritual...

pre-Romanesque Art

pre-Romanesque Art   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
470 words

...point where the late Roman Empire met the christianization of the 4th c., but rather towards the end of the 5th century. However, the approach to these transformations differed in different regions, e.g. in the French Midi where antique traditions were still felt very late. Likewise, it was in the northern part of France that the Carolingian efforts to renew buildings to accord with a once-more unitary liturgy were most clearly manifested. Pre-Romanesque art was manifested mainly in the rebuilding of great urban edifices: cathedrals , Baptisteries or...

Picts

Picts   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
579 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the acceptance of the Roman *Easter by King Naiton , son of Derile ( c .711 ), and the conquest of *Dál Riata by Onuist , son of Wrguist , in the 740s . Onuist ’s reign probably also saw the final suppression of independence in Atholl and the establishment of a unitary kingdom of Pictavia. The church at *St Andrews was probably founded in his reign. The Picts disappear quite suddenly from our sources in the later 870s . The last king appearing in king-lists was Constantín, son of Cinaed (d. 876 ), but the chronicles allow us to add his...

Staffordshire

Staffordshire   Quick reference

A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
601 words

...federated borough of Stoke‐on‐Trent. By the local government reorganization of 1972 , Staffordshire lost Walsall and Wolverhampton to the new West Midlands authority. Staffordshire retained its own county council in the later 1990s, with Stoke and Sandwell (Smethwick) becoming unitary...

Gurdjieff, Georges Ivanovitch

Gurdjieff, Georges Ivanovitch (1866?–1949)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,870 words

...held a broadly post-Neoplatonic emanationist schema in which the manifold emerges and descends hierarchically from a unitary source and through to which it can once again ascend – which he termed “involution” and “evolution” respectively. This process unfolds through the actions of two fundamental principles: the “Law of Three,” which determines all manifest relationship, and the “Law of Seven,” which determines all manifest transformations, which Gurdjieff at this time also referred to as the “Law of Octaves.” The “Ray of Creation” is our own particular...

Bourgeoisie

Bourgeoisie   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,252 words

...sweeping generalizations. They suggest that seeing the great political revolutions as straightforward contests between nobles and bourgeois, or economic transformations as the work of one thrusting sector of society, does not stand up to empirical scrutiny. They point to considerable divisions among the bourgeoisie on occupational, political, religious, and ethnic lines and a failure to act as a unitary class. Some have even stated that the use of the term is deeply unhelpful, since even in France no group ever called itself the bourgeoisie, was ever aware...

Malaysia

Malaysia   Reference library

Graham K. Brown

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,100 words

...for the bumiputera across virtually all sectors of economic activity. The subsequent three decades saw a dramatic economic transformation of Malaysia, with poverty declining from around 50 percent in 1970 to under 10 percent in the late 1990s and one of the fastest gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates in the world over this period. Investment in heavy industry and electronics in particular led to a sectoral transformation, with manufacturing quickly eclipsing agriculture as the main source of GDP. Moreover, on the back of the NEP, economic...

Anthropology.

Anthropology.   Reference library

Neil L. Whitehead

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,123 words

...to explicate the coordination of cultural proclivities and historical actions, as in the work of Victor Turner on “communitas.” But Emiko Ohnuki-Tierney showed that symbolic transformation itself cannot be adequately explained without reference to wider historical transformations, especially colonialism. The relation between these symbolic and historical transformations was stressed by Sahlins who demonstrated the importance of knowing the actual impact of different ways of symbolizing history on historical actions. From literary and political...

Sole Practitioners

Sole Practitioners   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Law
Length:
1,991 words

...of individuals. This difference in type of client suggested a fractured legal profession, not a unitary bar. In 1913 , the American Bar Association asked the Carnegie Foundation to investigate the system of legal education in the United States in the hope of making a reality the ideal of a unitary bar. Eight years later, Training for the Public Profession of the Law (commonly known as the Reed Report) was published. The Report concluded that a unitary bar was nonexistent, and that the widely varying existing types of legal education well served the...

Third World

Third World   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
993 words

...several poor countries in the “north”: India, with fifteen percent of the world's population, the rest of South Asia, some of Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, Central America, and the northern region of South America. Another viewpoint is that the world should be analyzed in more unitary terms. World systems theorists such as Immanuel Wallerstein reason that there is a single world economy and that it is capitalist. The analysis that follows from this presupposition identifies three tiers of the world economy: core, periphery, and semiperiphery. The danger,...

Medina Charter

Medina Charter   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...by that religion; if people are not able to choose their own legal system, as the modern secular state dictates, then they cannot be said to be practicing freedom of religion. The Turkish state establishment declared this view of legal plurality antithetical to Turkey's unitary legal system and its national sovereignty. Liberal secularists also opposed Bulaç's theory by arguing that religiously-defined categories cannot serve as the basis for liberal multiculturalism. Defenders of legal plurality were criticized by liberals for envisaging “tribes of...

Critical Linguistics

Critical Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
901 words

...Althusser , see ideologies as embedded in social practices and as part of “common sense”; this view has suggested to others a focus upon language practices as the main locus of ideology. Althusser and Foucault have also contributed to a new view of the social subject as non-unitary, constituted in social practice (including language), and constantly open to reconstitution. Other significant influences on critical linguistics include semiology (notably the work of Roland Barthes ), and the rediscovery, mainly via literary theory, of the early Soviet...

Human Rights

Human Rights   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Rights The many different cultures, traditions, and religions in Africa make it impossible to talk meaningfully about a unitary African culture. Despite this diversity, it is sometimes claimed that Africans have traditionally accepted authoritarian governments and are less concerned with human rights, especially political freedoms, than many peoples elsewhere in the world, including other parts of the developing world. This “African” view of human rights is sometimes characterized as primarily concerned about collective over individual rights....

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