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Turkey

Tension between Islamists and secularists threatens democracy and EU accession Turkey is predominantly mountainous. The lowlands are mostly confined to coastal areas around the ...

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World Maps

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Turkey Physical map Political map Istanbul...

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Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...bird retained the name “turkey,” and the less important guinea fowl acquired other names. American Turkeys. Turkey was an extremely important food for European colonists in North America. Because domesticated turkeys were plentiful in England by 1550 , British colonists were familiar with turkey well before their ships landed in North America. In 1621 William Bradford reported that there “was a great store of wild turkeys, of which they took many.” Turkeys were also an important food source on the western frontier. Domesticated turkeys were imported from...

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World Flags

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... Turkey's flag is nicknamed Ay Yildiz (Moon Star). The crescent moon and five-pointed star are traditional Islamic symbols, but their association with Turkey may predate Islam. Red has been associated with the Ottomans since the birth of the empire in the 13th...

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
40 words

... North American gamebird now widely domesticated throughout the world. The common wild turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo ), once abundant in North America, was overhunted and is now protected. The male, or gobbler, is often bearded. Length: 125cm (50in). Family...

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A Dictionary of Agriculture and Land Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
40 words

... A large poultry bird, Meleagris gallopavo , domesticated from the wild turkey in America at least 2,000 years ago. It is reared for its meat and is associated with festive meals such as Christmas, or in the USA,...

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Ersin Kalaycioglu

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,867 words

...waters, to twelve miles; Turkey not only objected but also declared a casus belli (cause of war) between the two countries, for such an extension leaves no room for international waters that can be reached from the Turkish shore in the Aegean, which is unacceptable for Turkey. These actions by Turkey have been presented by the Greek government as a threat, but Turkey considers them to be a functional deterrence that has kept Greece and Turkey from going to war. There was also the issue of Cyprus, which also complicated Greek-Turkish relations further. In the...

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The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
28 words

... The name sometimes given to tanned *goatskin used for bookbinding, reflecting the source from which it was typically imported before the 18 th century. See also leather...

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
655 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Several thousand of these tales are preserved at the Archive of Turkish Oral Narrative at Texas Tech, in Lubbock. Barbara K. Walker ’s The Art of the Turkish Tale (rev. ed., 1993 ) offers eighty such tales covering a spectrum of styles. One of the most enduring characters of Turkish folklore is Nasreddin Hodja (or Nasrettin Hoca ), a historical 13th-century Turkish philosopher, whose wisdom and humor have been spun into fictional tales. Demi ’s The Hungry Coat: A Tale from Turkey ( McElderry , 2004 ) is a wry moral tale that describes ...

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The Oxford Dictionary of Dance (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
340 words

...Quartet. It helped to pave the way for other Turkish choreographers such as Mehmet Balkan . In 1970 a second company was founded, called the Istanbul State Ballet. There has been only sporadic modern dance activity in Turkey due to lack of funding. The sole state-supported company has been the Ankara-based Modern Dance Turkey, which was founded in 1993 by Turkish-born Beyhan Murphy , a graduate of London Contemporary Dance Theatre. With about 18 dancers, a repertory of works by Murphy herself, Turkish choreographers, and British choreographers like ...

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...3 per cent, Turkish Thrace, in Europe. The name Turk was first recorded in the 6th century by the Chinese to describe an empire in Central Asia founded by a steppe people called the Ti-Kiu or Tu-Küe. This became Türk to signify ‘ruling people’ or ‘those who have authority’, that is the Turkic-speaking tribes of Central Asia. The country has given its name to the turkey: because African guinea-fowl were exported to England through Turkey, the bird came to be called the turkeycock or turkeyhen which were subsequently shortened to turkey. Turkish Delight, a...

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The Handbook of International Financial Terms

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

... . 1 Market jargon used to describe a poorly performing investment ( cf. dog ; taking a bath ; taking a hit ). 2 A poorly performing business unit or firm which is restructured so as to make it an attractive buying...

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A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,910 words
Illustration(s):
2

...were around 2.5 million foreigners living in Turkey, of whom one million are unauthorized. In addition, by the start of 2016 , over two million Syrian refugees were in Turkey, which has become the largest host of refugees in the world. While some have journeyed on to Europe, making use of the proximity of Greek islands to the Turkish mainland, many others have remained in refugee camps, and Turkey is receiving significant EU funds to encourage refugees to stay rather than make their way to Europe. Within Turkey, there is also a significant minority of...

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William Hale

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...of Alexandretta from Syria to Turkey, the Turkish and French governments issued a similar declaration in June 1939 . Soon afterwards, however, Turkey received a rude shock from the signature of the Nazi–Soviet Pact of August 1939 , which created the serious danger that Hitler and Stalin might combine against it. Accordingly, the Turkish foreign minister, Şükrü Saracoglu , visited Moscow in September 1939 for what turned out to be a fruitless attempt to negotiate mutual security arrangements. Faced with this failure, Turkey returned to negotiations with...

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
65 words

... [Sp] Large game‐bird of the Phasianidae family ( Meleagris gallopavo ) with dark plumage, native to North America from Canada down to Mexico. Widely hunted from Archaic times onwards, especially in the Great Plains and eastern woodlands. In their wild state turkeys have been hunted to extinction in North America, although there are many domestic breeds. Brought to Europe in the 16th century ad...

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Laura Mason

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,028 words

..., and probably peacocks too. Linnaeus used Meleagris , the Roman name for guinea-fowl, when naming the genus to which turkeys belong. Europeans called turkeys by names reflecting a supposed eastern origin, including coq d’Inde (cock of India), later corrupted to dinde or dindon in French. The English, who may have had their first birds through the agency of the Levant or Turkey merchants, settled on ‘turkey-cock’. Wild turkeys of N. America are much leaner and more streamlined birds than their modern descendants. In their natural state they live in...

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Aylin Öney Tan

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,151 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Turkey ’s diverse cheese culture reflects its location at the crossroads of Asia and Europe, varying geographical and climatic conditions, and multilayered history. Turkey’s national territory extends from Iran and the Middle East to the Balkans, with coasts on three seas, mountainous terrain, and highland plateaus. Turkish cheeses differ from those of Western Europe but share some similarities with the Balkans, especially Greece and Bulgaria. See bulgaria and greece . The Turkish word for cheese is peynir , from the Farsi penîr , whence also the...

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
1,065 words
Illustration(s):
4

...1990s civil war was a problem in the E and SE of Turkey. Fighting took place between Turkish forces and those of the secessionist Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK). Over 30,000 people died and the Turkish government has frequently been accused of violating the human rights of the Kurds . A ceasefire was reached in 1999 , but broke down in 2004 as violence resumed. Turkey has since made several military incursions into the Kurdish area of Iraq to forestall attacks, but bombings have occurred sporadically. Turkey’s recent good relations with Israel were damaged...

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
1,034 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Source: MAPS IN MINUTES™ © RH Publications (1997) Capital: Ankara Area: 783,562 sq km (302,535 sq miles) Population: 80,694,485 (2013 est) Currency: 1 New Turkish lira = 100 kurus Religions: Muslim (principally Sunni) 99.8% Ethnic Groups: Turkish: between 70.0% and 75.0%; Kurdish 18.0% Languages: Turkish (official); Kurdish; minority languages International Organizations: UN; OECD; NATO; Council of Europe; OSCE; WTO A country partly in Asia and partly in Europe. Physical The Asian and European parts of Turkey are separated by the Bosporus, the Sea...

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Priscilla Mary Işın

The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
2,098 words
Illustration(s):
1

... has been a melting pot of peoples and cultures for thousands of years, from the first farmers of the Neolithic Age to the Hittites, Lydians, and Byzantines. Turkish people from Iran and Central Asia arrived in large numbers after the Iranian Seljuks, a Turkish dynasty, spawned the Anatolian Seljuk state in 1077 . The Seljuks were followed by centuries of Ottoman rule ( 1299–1922 ), when a sophisticated cuisine evolved that exerted widespread influence across western Asia and eastern Europe. The diversity of Turkish sweets and desserts reflects both the...

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Cigdem Atakuman

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,456 words

...interest in history. The Turkish Historical Society was established in 1930 to carry out the activities associated with the historical construction of the new nation-state, which crystallized in the “Turkish History Thesis.” The Historical Society became the Turkish History Association in 1935 when The Faculty of Linguistics, History and Geography, now a part of Ankara University, was also established in the same year. The Faculty flourished with the inclusion of scholars from Europe that escaped the Nazi regime. The Turkish History Thesis had three...

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