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Overview

translation

Subject: Literature

The provision of an expression in one language meaning the same as that of another. In so far as different languages reflect different cultural and social histories, because of the holism ...

Syria

Syria   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
20,061 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Harvey . “ Archaeology in Syria. ” American Journal of Archaeology 98 (1994): 101–158. One of a series of articles which includes excavation summaries, grouped by time periods. (For a journal devoted entirely to Syrian archaeology, see the French journal Syria ). Georges Tate Translated from French by Nancy Leinwand Syria in the Islamic Period The Muslim conquest of Syria in the seventh century ce was momentous in the history of the region. The Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire, ancient and proud as it was, faced a challenge not only in the field...

translation

translation   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007

... ( linear motion ; translatory motion ) Form of motion in which all parts of a body travel exactly the same distance, in the same direction, in the same time. Compare angular motion . See also curvilinear translation , rectilinear translation...

translation

translation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Physics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Physics
Length:
16 words

...translation Motion of a body in which all the points in the body follow parallel paths....

Translation

Translation   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
615 words

...40 percent translations and Germany around 30 percent. In most non-English-speaking countries, some 80 percent of translations are from English. Two paradoxes underlie the perception of translated children's literature. It is commonly held that translated books are outstanding works that enrich the body of children's literature. This is confirmed by the number of prizewinning books that are translated. On the other hand, an ever increasing proportion of translations is now composed of popular fiction series. It is further held that translated literature...

Translation

Translation   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
876 words
Illustration(s):
1

...been argued that traditional grammar—translation tasks in school do not constitute a suitable training for translating as such. (5) Human and machine translation. The high cost of professional translating and interpreting led to substantial institutional investment in machine-assisted translation and automatic translation, called machine translation (MT). The role of corpus linguistics in translation has become increasingly important in developing improved translations, for example the development and use of parallel corpora where an original corpus is...

‘translation’

translation’   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
94 words

...translation’ Lucien Tesnière’s term, in French, for a process by which a unit that is basically of one syntactic class is transferred to a role that is basically that of another. Thus cool is basically an adjective, and in and out are basically prepositions. But in the cool of the night or the ins and outs they are ‘transferred’ ’ to the role of nouns. A grammatical element is ‘translative’ (again in French) if it is seen as marking a ‘translation’: e.g. the is translative in both these examples. Compare transposition (2) ; conversion...

translation

translation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Mechanical Engineering (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...translation ( translational motion ) (Unit m) Any change in the position of an object or particle excluding...

translation

translation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
96 words

... The provision of an expression in one language meaning the same as that of another. In so far as different languages reflect different cultural and social histories, because of the holism of meaning, and because of the different associations and tone of different words, translation may be an ideal which can only be approached but never fully achieved. The thesis of the indeterminacy of radical translation goes beyond this by holding that radically different translations may be equally correct, thereby denying determinacy of meaning to the...

translation

translation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Space Exploration (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...translation The movement of a spacecraft in any one direction along a straight line. This can include...

Translation

Translation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
6,029 words

...translations, first in eastern and northern European cultures and later in the west. Klopstock's poetry was translated into Icelandic, and Hamlet was indirectly translated into Polish and Hungarian via a German translation. Direct translations between more minor languages were relatively few, most notably between Italian and Spanish. Italian also served as a mediator for indirect Spanish translations of such works as Ossian . Translations from non-European languages were similarly sparse, but of great importance. The Arabian Nights , translated into...

translation

translation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... The production of a polypeptide sequence of amino acids from the information encoded in the nucleotide sequence of messenger-RNA . The process takes place at the ribosome...

translation

translation (in cell biology)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Nursing (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
28 words

... [tranz- lay -shŏn] n. ( in cell biology ) the manufacture of proteins in a cell, which takes place at the ribosomes. See messenger RNA , transfer RNA...

translation

translation   Reference library

Charles Anthony Martindale and Lorna Hardwick

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,630 words

...and Translation (1970); A. Momigliano , Alien Wisdom (1975); L. G. Kelly , The True Interpreter: A History of Translation Theory and Practice in the West (1979); S. Bassnett , Translation Studies (1980; rev. 1991, 2002); D. Weissbort (ed.), Translating Poetry: The Double Labyrinth (1989); C. Martindale , Redeeming the Text: Latin Poetry and the Hermeneutics of Reception (1993), ch. 4; L. Venuti , The Translator's Invisibility (1995); P. France (ed.), The Oxford Guide to Literature in English Translation (2000); L. Hardwick , Translating...

translation

translation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,994 words

...3. Early modern translators and translations Humanism, focusing on the discovery of ancient texts and a critical attitude towards them, resulted in a surge of translation s, further encouraged by the appearance of printing. Until the 16 th century, most translation s were into Latin, notably those Greek classical authors much in demand. *Petrarca thus commissioned the first modern Latin translation of Homer ( 1360–63 ), based on a Greek MS of the Iliad , while Valla translated Thucydides and Ficino translated Plato. Even *Erasmus produced Latin...

translation

translation   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
794 words

... Odyssey ( 1725–6 ). The early 19th century produced translations of modern German literature, in S. T. Coleridge 's translation of the last two parts of Schiller 's Wallenstein ( 1800 ), and in Thomas Carlyle 's version of Goethe 's novel Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship ( 1824 , 1827 ); and Henry Cary 's blank verse translation of Dante 's Divina commedia ( 1805 , 1814 ). Victorian disagreements over principles of translation from the ancient Greek led to Matthew Arnold 's On Translating Homer ( 1861 ) and Robert Browning 's defiantly...

translation

translation ((clerical))   Reference library

Andrew Louth

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
75 words

... (clerical) In canon law the transference of a cleric from one ecclesiastical office to another. The translation of a bp from one see to another was forbidden by can. 15 of the Council of Nicaea (325), but the decree was never rigorously adhered to, and in the Middle Ages the translation of bps became one of the prerogatives of the popes and the practice has continued down to modern times. Andrew...

Translation

Translation   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
1,449 words

... . Few writers who specialized in translation are still remembered, and the genre occupies only a small place in most histories of literature. Yet many major French writers have also translated, and translation is a vital element in the national literature. Together with various forms of imitation and adaptation, it has allowed the culture of other nations to shape French writing; the principal foreign influences are traced here in separate entries [ see British, Irish, and American Influences, etc. ]. In addition, at certain periods, translation has...

Translation

Translation   Reference library

Alexander Kazhdan, Alice-Mary Talbot, Francis J. Thomson, Robert W. Thomson, Alexander Kazhdan, and Alice-Mary Talbot

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,781 words

... . Throughout the Byz. era neighboring cultures showed an awareness of Greek literature and made translations of Greek authors. The Byz., on the other hand, showed much less interest in translating works in other languages into Greek, except in the final centuries of the empire. Greek Into Latin Greek Into Slavonic Greek Into Languages of the Christian East Other Languages Into Greek Greek Into Latin . In the West interest in translation into Latin concentrated around several types of literature: science (in 6th-C. Africa, Mustio translated the...

translation

translation   Reference library

Charles Anthony Martindale and Lorna Hardwick

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,477 words

...‘equivalence’ rather than identity; translation involves simultaneous sameness and difference. Indeed, any theory of translation obviously implies and is dependent upon, a theory of language. It is thus a philosophical or even metaphysical matter as well as an index for cultural exchange. Translation has often been marginalized as a second-order activity, because the translation has been perceived as subordinate to its wider purpose and so lacking in originality and in lasting literary quality. However, translations can become classics in their own right...

translation

translation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
35 words

... 1. The expression of the sense of one language by another. 2. In Actor-Network Theory , the process by which the interests of various actors are aligned to bring them together into an...

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