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top-down processing

Information processing that proceeds from information already stored in memory, especially general assumptions or presuppositions about the material being processed, as when a person forms ...

top-down processing

top-down processing n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...-down processing n . Information processing that proceeds from information already stored in memory, especially general assumptions or presuppositions about the material being processed, as when a person forms a hypothesis on the basis of existing schemata and prior experience about what an object might be and then uses sensory evidence to corroborate or disconfirm the hypothesis. In reading indistinct handwriting, for example, if the words whisky and …occur and the last word is illegible, a reader may use top-down processing and guess the last word to...

top-down processing

top-down processing   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
137 words

...-down processing ( theory-driven processing , hypothesis-led processing , conceptually driven processing ) A goal-directed mode of perception (or a phase in a perceptual cycle ) in which schemata or hypotheses set up prior expectations which drive the search for data . This is typical of higher levels of attention (or motivation ). It is the dominant mode when you are convinced, on the basis of limited data, that you have seen a friend, just before bottom-up processing comes into play, alerting you to inconsistent data as you realize that it...

top-down processing

top-down processing  

Information processing that proceeds from information already stored in memory, especially general assumptions or presuppositions about the material being processed, as when a person forms a ...
Medicine

Medicine   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
3,985 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...cultural formation of *spa towns operated precisely at this nexus of *consumerism [19] and medicalization. Historians of eighteenth-century medicine used to present a picture of an ordered, hierarchical, pyramidal medical profession, one with an élite of physicians at the top, a larger number of surgeons in the middle, and a heap of apothecaries at the foot. Medicine was regulated by corporations. Physicians commanded greatest prestige because they had been trained at university, and ‘physick’—the art of diagnosis and prescribing—was seen as a science...

11 The Technologies of Print

11 The Technologies of Print   Reference library

James Mosley

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,250 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
8

...pieces that slid against each other to open and close laterally. Accurate castings about one inch high could be made from a sequence of matrices of letters, with each letter being the same *height from top to bottom, but varying according to the different widths required for narrow letters such as ‘i’ and wide ones such as ‘M’. Eventually, the manual processes for making types and assembling them into words and lines were mechanized ( see linotype ; monotype ), and alternative methods of placing words and images on paper were devised. Nonetheless, until the...

17 Bookbinding

17 Bookbinding   Reference library

David Pearson

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,353 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
9

...as *finishing . These processes remained essentially constant throughout the medieval and handpress periods; the relatively few changes that evolved over time were commonly associated with a wish to expedite or economize on labour and materials as more books came to be produced. Once printing was established, the double-thickness sewing supports typically used in medieval bindings gave way to single ones, and various techniques were developed to speed up sewing by running the needle between gatherings as it ran up and down the spine. An alternative...

Consumerism

Consumerism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
3,809 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Dutch Republic has as good a claim as any to be called the first consumer society: a high percentage of the population was bourgeois, that is, lived in towns, and enjoyed sufficient economic surplus to be able to purchase large quantities and a wide range of luxuries, on top of necessities. Dutch culture found the very idea of a world of goods fascinating yet also morally perilous: the still-life paintings of the Golden Age made a great display of universal abundance, while encoding moral warnings against the seductiveness of things ( vanitas ) in a...

The Indonesian Revolution

The Indonesian Revolution   Reference library

Muhammad Natsir

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,838 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...usually dubbed, these days, as “the struggle for life”—a snatching of life based on claim and counter claim, the consequence of which is that the strongest emerge on top while the weakest goes to the wall. In western nations, it is this “struggle for life” outlook which holds sway at the moment, the search for life—even though other people might be crushed in the process. But, we may ask, is that indeed the only road by which to achieve life and social welfare? The teaching of Islam, in confronting this vexed problem, holds...

Prints

Prints   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,058 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...plate. Copper had one serious disadvantage: as a soft metal it wore down imperceptibly each time it was printed, with the result that there was a limit on the number of satisfactory prints which could be taken from one plate. In the early nineteenth century copper was increasingly, though never completely, replaced by other means: lithography, steel plates, and Bewick's method—the use of the end-grain of hard wood. Lithography was the most adaptable printing method, for it was a chemical process, allowing an artist to work easily and freely with a greasy medium...

In the Beginning: The Earliest History

In the Beginning: The Earliest History   Reference library

Michael D. Coogan

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
10,305 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...6 meters (20 feet). A moat encircled the wall, and just inside the wall was at least one massive circular stone tower, more than 8 meters (26 feet) high, with a diameter of about 9 meters (30 feet) at the base and 7 meters (23 feet) at the top. Inside this tower was a twenty-two-step staircase leading from its base to its top. This complex enclosure system was in use for only a millennium or so, and its function is unclear, although defense is the most reasonable hypothesis. (An alternative explanation proposes a religious use, but archaeologists too often...

19 The Electronic Book

19 The Electronic Book   Reference library

Eileen Gardiner and Ronald G. Musto

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,021 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...In March 1999 , *Darnton described a model for the e-book as a six-layered pyramid, with the lightest piece of interpretation at the top, and the material becoming broader and heavier with commentary and primary sources as the reader delved towards the bottom. The e-book was a self-contained construct produced by author and reader together, with comments, interpretive essays, and exchanges all holding up the piece at the top. Darnton’s article had an immediate and profound impact and became an important theoretical model. Darnton also engaged the culture of...

Introduction to the Old Testament

Introduction to the Old Testament   Reference library

John Barton

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,263 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the LXX seems to be a translation of a different Hebrew original from the one that has come down to us, and in some books, notably Jeremiah, it is obvious that the translators were dealing with a quite different (in this case, shorter) version of the book. Any quest for an ‘original’ text of Jeremiah underlying the MT therefore has to treat the evidence of the LXX very seriously. 3. In the early church Greek was at first the commonest language, and the LXX has come down to us largely because it was preserved in Christian hands. Its divergent ordering of the...

Surnames

Surnames   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,649 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...The fashion for families to have fixed, hereditary surnames began at the top level of medieval society and spread slowly down the social scale. The reasons for this fashion remain rather mysterious, though the practice was adopted widely throughout western Europe in the Middle Ages. Before the Norman Conquest , English people were known by their personal name and perhaps by a by‐name which was not hereditary. The Norman barons commonly took the name of their estate (either in England or in Normandy) as a surname; a few had already done so before the...

Compatibility: Neither Required nor an Issue

Compatibility: Neither Required nor an Issue   Reference library

Ullah Jan Abid

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,474 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...any of the shackles of its predecessors. Besides, unless it is born from the faith of the masses and the elite, any attempts to implement any sort of Islamic rule will be an unwelcome imposition on a population not ready for it. No legitimate government can be implemented with a top-down approach, and an Islamic democracy is no exception. An Islamic model, however, does not mean a threat to global security and others’ interest at all. The need is to understand that a true Islamic model would neither be a threat to non-Muslims nor will it be exactly according to...

14 Printed Ephemera

14 Printed Ephemera   Reference library

Michael Harris

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,085 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...insecure component of *print culture . The book as a form is usually placed at the top of a hierarchy of print, standing at the pinnacle of a pyramid of output that broadens out to the flat base of printed ephemera. However, this seems less than realistic, given the ephemeral nature of many books ( see survival rates ); moreover, their own boundaries with other forms are often insecure, blurring and fading over time. Within print culture, there has been a continuous process of reassessment, which (mainly through collection) has brought a range of non-book...

3 The Ancient Book

3 The Ancient Book   Reference library

Craig Kallendorf

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,021 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...sherds), linen mummy wrappings, monuments, and temples, even occasionally on animal skins, but most often on *papyrus , which came from the marshy delta of the lower Nile. The precise details of the production process remain debatable, but it is commonly agreed that the stalks of reeds were opened out and sheets of papyrus were placed on top of one another at right angles, then pressed so that their sap would hold them together. Sheets were next dried and bleached in the sun, then pasted together into scrolls. The pen was cut from the same reed, with its...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...than on income and wealth, and often using the word ‘class’ derived from the Latin classis , meaning a group for taxation purposes. By the 1760s a tripartite division into higher, middling, and lower classes had appeared, with the middle seen as moving towards the apex at the top. In the 1770s, however, celebration began of the middle as the golden mean between two extremes, a configuration which was to become important in middle-class self-definition. The new political economy also complicated the picture by its emphasis on a tripartite division of society...

Scandinavian Family Names

Scandinavian Family Names   Reference library

Olav Veka and Lennart Ryman

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
3,904 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...common surname type is the habitational name from a farmstead, names that reflect the varied natural landscape with a finely tuned descriptive vocabulary. Of the 100 most common Norwegian surnames, forty-two are of the farmstead type and fifty-eight are patronymics. Patronymics top the population statistics, however, as the thirteen most widely used names. A good quarter of the Norwegian people have a patronymic surname, while most of the others, slightly fewer than three-quarters, have a farmstead name. Patronymics number slightly more than 2,000 names,...

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914

20b The History of the Book in Britain, 1801–1914   Reference library

Leslie Howsam

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,084 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...enough for the gentry’s midday meals. Like reprinting in cheap editions, this policy would have allowed the fish merchants to take advantage of a second class of customers, poorer families preparing supper, without any risk to the market earlier in the day. Similarly, the top London and Edinburgh publishers were slow to recognize that the market for reprinted works of literature in cheap editions would not spoil that for fresh originals in good bindings at high prices. Exacerbating the effects of this commercial outlook, the price of paper was high...

Shari‘a: The Codification of Islamic Law

Sharia: The Codification of Islamic Law   Reference library

Muhammad Sa‘id Al-‘Ashmawi

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,146 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...It is enough to know a little of penal justice to know the extent to which pressure can be put upon victims in order that they modify or falsify their testimony so that the evidence can be subject to controversy in the judicial process. What will happen if these pressures would make it possible to stop the process itself? Our judicial system authorizes the retraction of an action as a civil matter, but not in a criminal matter for that would threaten the whole society, which is the reason why such a retraction is reserved solely to the public...

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