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temporal relationship

An essential feature in interpretation of events is their relationship to one another in time. In all causal relationships, the cause must precede the effect.

temporal relationship

temporal relationship   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...temporal relationship An essential feature in interpretation of events is their relationship to one another in time. In all causal relationships, the cause must precede the effect. ...

temporal relationship

temporal relationship  

An essential feature in interpretation of events is their relationship to one another in time. In all causal relationships, the cause must precede the effect.
The Necessity of Renewing Islamic Thought and Reinvigorating Religious Understanding

The Necessity of Renewing Islamic Thought and Reinvigorating Religious Understanding   Reference library

Nurcholish Madjid

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,874 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...process is particularly needed because the umma , as a result of its own historical growth, is no longer capable of distinguishing—among the values which they consider Islamic—those that are transcendental from those that are temporal. In fact the hierarchy of values is often the reverse; the transcendental becomes temporal and vice versa, or everything becomes transcendental and valued as ukhrawi [pertaining to the hereafter] without exception. Even though they (the Muslims) perhaps do not express it in words, or may even deny it, still that attitude...

History

History   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,067 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...that belong at once to two different and to some extent competing orders of temporality [ see *exploration, 37 ]. On the one hand, each society is theorized as moving through a series of stages sequenced in an order that is more or less autonomous and stable. Insofar as the stages are also ‘ages’, these sequencings can be said to constitute temporal orders. On the other hand, this same historiographical discourse always implies as well a second temporality, which is the temporality in which these different national times can be correlated and calendrically...

Tolerance and Governance: A Discourse on Religion and Democracy

Tolerance and Governance: A Discourse on Religion and Democracy   Reference library

Soroush Abdolkarim

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,536 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and democratic. Parting with metaphysics meant, for the West, parting with all of its requisites: the church and the clergy, divine laws, ethics, religious strictures, clerical government, and pious submission. In short, every religious institution that oversaw the temporal affairs in any way was abandoned. It was such a rupture that, in Kant's words, liberated humanity from its “infancy” and placed the destiny and determination of all affairs in its hands. Thereafter, man reached an unprecedented centrality (even Godliness) in world history....

Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,380 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...The Romantic age and the cultural and artistic movement of *Romanticism occupy no firm temporal boundaries. In large part, however, they overlapped and interacted with the complex of changes which are subsumed under the name of the industrial revolution. The publication of the first parts of Edward *Gibbon 's Decline and Fall in 1776 coincided with that of Adam *Smith 's Wealth of Nations and the flurry of patents with which James *Watt created the first efficient form of steam power. By the end of our period, writers had begun to...

Our Decline and Its Causes

Our Decline and Its Causes   Reference library

Amīr Shakīb Arslān

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,183 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...all countries where Muslims and non-Muslims live side by side, the Muslims lag far behind in almost everything. . . . It cannot, however, be gainsaid that throughout the Islamic world, there has been a great stir, a powerful convulsion and an awakening in matters spiritual and temporal which is indeed phenomenal. The Europeans are carefully observing these revolutionary manifestations and are studying their directions and tendencies. That some of them are indeed apprehensive and suspicious of this awakening and stir is vouched for by the articles and books...

Hebrews

Hebrews   Reference library

Harold W. Attridge and Harold W. Attridge

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
22,421 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...The most natural reading suggests that the homilist construes the verse to be a call to angels to worship the Son at his birth. Some scholars refer ‘the world’ to the supernal or heavenly realm. Others take the adverb ‘again’ temporally and construe the event to be Christ's parousia. The adverb in this context has no temporal sense, but simply links verses in the catena ( cf. v. 5; 2:13 ). The homilist apparently has appropriated a florilegium focused on the eschatological exaltation of Jesus and reinterpreted it within the framework of his understanding...

2 Corinthians

2 Corinthians   Reference library

Margaret MacDonald and Margaret MacDonald

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
21,614 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...body. By the time of the composition of 2 Corinthians (or various letter fragments), community problems extended to include the nature of the apostle's relationship with the Corinthians. Indeed, some wonder whether the harsh, critical—even sardonic—tone of 1 Corinthians may have alienated its recipients to the extent that a second, more conciliatory letter was required. Convinced that the relationship was severely threatened, and of the need for reconciliation, Paul set out to defend his apostolic authority. By the time that 2 Cor 10–13 was composed (See...

Jeremiah

Jeremiah   Reference library

Kathleen M. O'Connor and Kathleen M. O'Connor

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
48,981 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...considers rhetorical functions of text. 3. Diachronic questions cannot be dismissed entirely, however. The relationship of text to historical context remains central to interpretation ( Liwak 1987 ). Rather than seeking original contexts of small units, however, synchronic interpretation seeks to understand the relationship of the final form of the text to its audience in exile. Past, present, and future time frames criss-cross one another as if temporal boundaries were permeable. Linear chronology is absent because for exiles the pre-exilic past and hoped-for...

Esther (Greek)

Esther (Greek)   Reference library

Adele Reinhartz and Adele Reinhartz

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
9,194 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...a narrative thread concerning the relationship between Mordecai and Esther. From the beginning of Addition A, it is clear that Mordecai, as Esther's elder and a man, dominates this relationship, a position that is reinforced by his role as her guardian, her obedience to his command not to reveal her people or her country ( 2:10 ), and his monitoring of her welfare in the courtyard of the harem ( 2:11 ). Her ascension to the throne, however, is a potential threat to Mordecai's dominant position in their relationship. The threat is defused, for the moment,...

Compatibility: Neither Required nor an Issue

Compatibility: Neither Required nor an Issue   Reference library

Ullah Jan Abid

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,474 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...witness today because it has the potential to let human beings develop the most perfect governance mechanism. It is not that Muslims should embrace secular values for democracy and break up their life into temporal public and religious private spheres. “The Ultimate Reality, according to the Qur'an, is spiritual, and its life consists in its temporal activity. The spirit finds its opportunities in the natural, the material, and the secular. All that is secular is therefore sacred in the roots of its being.” 18 It can be understood in the light of the fact...

The Early Church

The Early Church   Reference library

Henning Graf Reventlow

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,415 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
6

...appeared to the patriarchs and the prophets. The same God proclaimed the law; the gospel is its fulfilment. Irenaeus understands the commands in the Sermon on the Mount as the better law and can even speak of the ‘law of the gospel’ ( iv , 16: 1–4 ). But he mentions also the temporal end of the law in the time of John the Baptist ( iv , 4: 2 ). He accepts also the traditional view that the Holy Spirit acts in the scriptures ( ii , 28: 2 ). He uses allegorical forms of exegesis, detecting ‘spiritual’ meanings. All in all, his well-rounded theological...

Islam And Arab Nationalism

Islam And Arab Nationalism   Reference library

‘Abd Al-Rahmān Al-Bazzāz

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,393 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to claim great spiritual power over all the Christians, looked askance on all political movements which aimed at shaking off ecclesias-tical authority. In other words, European society gave allegiance to two fundamental authorities, the spiritual authority of the Pope and the temporal authority of the Emperor. This dualism, although it has come to us in some stages of our slow social evolution, is not known in true Islam, where it is not admitted. On the contrary, the unity of creed has led to the unity of life, and the unity of life has made the caliph of the...

Numbers

Numbers   Reference library

Terence E. Fretheim and Terence E. Fretheim

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
29,420 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...matters (e.g. lev 23; cf. num 7; 15; deut 16:1–17 ) and may be a late addition. Whereas the opening chapters of Numbers centre on the spatial ordering of the community, these ordinances focus on its temporal ordering, in anticipation of a more settled life in the land. By marking out these times Israel placed itself in tune with God's temporal ordering in creation, a rhythm and regularity essential for the life God intends for all (for links to Gen 1, see Olson 1996 : 170–3 ). At these times through the year Israel is to be attentive to offerings...

1 John, 2 John, and 3 John

1 John, 2 John, and 3 John   Reference library

Judith Lieu, Judith Lieu, Judith Lieu, and Judith Lieu

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,590 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...The appeal to tradition in formulaic Johannine language in vv. 4–6 is a foundation for the central section and its harsh directives. The language gives a sense of extreme urgency with a combination of warnings and sharp imperatives. A relationship with 1 John, especially 2:18–23; 4:1–6 is obvious, but the temporal sequence of the two letters is disputed: a minority see 2 John as an immediate response, while 1 John is more reflective, while others see the language of 2 John as derivative from 1 John, with its harsh measures as evidence of a hardening of...

Introduction to the Apocrypha

Introduction to the Apocrypha   Reference library

Martin Goodman

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
10,268 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...into 2 Esd 3–14 , which appears to have constituted a reaction by a Judean Jew to the destruction of the temple in 70 ce . I. The Apocrypha and the Bible. 1. Some of the works in the Apocrypha derive their literary form primarily from their relationship to biblical texts. In no case is this relationship in the form of a phrase-by-phrase commentary, unlike some rabbinic midrashim (see above, g .19), but the types of association are different in each case. 2. Rewritten Bible 1 Esdras is a Greek translation of a version of the biblical book of Ezra...

The Principle of Movement in the Structure of Islam

The Principle of Movement in the Structure of Islam   Reference library

Muhammad Iqbal

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,677 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to suppose that the idea of state is more dominant and rules all other ideas embodied in the system of Islam. In Islam the spiritual and the temporal are not two distinct domains, and the nature of an act, however secular in its import, is determined by the attitude of mind with which the agent does it. It is the invisible mental background of the act which ultimately determines its character. An act is temporal or profane if it is done in a spirit of detachment from the infinite complexity of life behind it; it is spiritual if it is inspired by that...

Religion and Liberty

Religion and Liberty   Reference library

Mehdi Bazargan

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
8,567 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...freedom, as outlined in the Qur'an and the tradition. Religion and the Nation Let me now turn to the question of the relationship of religion to government and, by implication, the question of Islamic government. The relationship of God and people has been outlined. We have established that the monotheistic religions and Islam, in particular, have lavished great respect and care on individual rights. They all consider mankind as free,...

Epilogue

Epilogue   Reference library

John Rogerson

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,761 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...designation of the world today. Postmodernism and Biblical Studies It is a commonplace of academic discourse that we are living in a postmodern era, although there is little agreement about whether ‘post’ is to be understood in a temporal or a structural sense. Understood as a temporal term, ‘postmodern’ denotes a period of time that has succeeded the ‘modern’ period. Understood structurally, ‘postmodern’ denotes features of thought that are not necessarily new, such as a distrust of grand narratives, but which are in conflict with what...

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