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survival value

The degree of effectiveness of a given phenotype in promoting the ability of that organism to contribute offspring to the future populations.

survival value

survival value   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
24 words

... value the degree of effectiveness of a given phenotype in promoting the ability of that organism to contribute offspring to the future...

survival value

survival value   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...survival value Qualities that confer an advantage on individuals or species by enabling them to survive adverse environmental circumstances and subsequently reproduce. Examples include spore formation by certain microorganisms, camouflage coloration of moths and birds, etc. ...

survival value

survival value   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Animal Behaviour (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
135 words

... value The survival of a trait within a population depends upon the extent to which the trait contributes to * reproductive success , which depends partly upon the selective pressures inherent in the environment. A number of features of the environment could jeopardize reproductive success, by leading to the death of the parent by starvation, predation, failure to breed as a result of * competition for mates or nesting sites, or failure of the young to survive because of lack of * parental care , food, or protection from predators. We can think of the...

survival value

survival value noun   Quick reference

New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
48 words
survival value

survival value noun   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
52 words
survival value

survival value  

The degree of effectiveness of a given phenotype in promoting the ability of that organism to contribute offspring to the future populations.
7 The Book as Symbol

7 The Book as Symbol   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,981 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...rival even the great religious sacred texts—740 million are believed to have been printed between the first publication in 1961 and the height of the Cultural Revolution in 1969 —the Little Red Book gained its value largely from its status as a political icon. Even as the book is demystified and deconsecrated in the modern world, its symbolic value endures. ( See also 2 , 8 , 38 .) Bibliography H. Amory , ‘The Trout and the Milk: An Ethnobibliographical Talk’, HLB NS 7 (1996), 50–65 E. R. Curtius , European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages ...

14 Printed Ephemera

14 Printed Ephemera   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,034 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...culture . The book as a form is usually placed at the top of a hierarchy of print, standing at the pinnacle of a pyramid of output that broadens out to the flat base of printed ephemera. However, this seems less than realistic, given the ephemeral nature of many books ( see survival rates ); moreover, their own boundaries with other forms are often insecure, blurring and fading over time. Within print culture, there has been a continuous process of reassessment, which (mainly through collection) has brought a range of non-book material into a new conceptual...

6 The European Printing Revolution

6 The European Printing Revolution   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,082 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...such as *romances , and, occasionally, devotional books such as *books of hours —and obsolescence (typically the publication of more complete and up-to-date works on the same subject). Survival rates are also affected by a book’s physical size (small-format books, or books with few leaves are more likely to be lost), its language (Greek and Latin works were more highly valued than vernacular ones), and provenance (institutionally owned books are more likely to survive than individually owned books). Titles may be lost to war, political and administrative...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Quick reference

Charles Phythian-Adams

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,654 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...culture. On the one hand—and, of course, simplistically—where work (or ethnicity) and residence largely coincided, we seem to see highly localized neighbourhood areas sharing the cultures of work, survival, and leisure in ways that bear a recognizable relation to traditional modes (especially where manual skills predominated), but looking to new streetwise values—and often out of doors—with the pub as the local recreational outlet for men and, in the most impoverished cases, the pawnshop as the focus of credit relationships for women (see Melanie Tebbutt , ...

32 The History of the Book in the Czech Republic and Slovakia

32 The History of the Book in the Czech Republic and Slovakia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,050 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...humanities, publishing was subsidized by the Matice česká, founded in 1831 , which organized public collections and appeals for donations. With Matice’s financial support, scientific illustration and the publication of maps and atlases developed and flourished. It ensured the survival of the Journal of the Czech Museum , that started in 1827 and continues to this day, and financed such significant undertakings as Jungmann’s five-volume Czech–German dictionary ( 1835–39 ) and Šafařík’s Slovanské starožitnosti ( 1837 ). The second half of the century...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,179 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...including the *enclosure of common land: complaints that farmers destroyed cottages as a strategy to reduce poor rates encapsulated more general fears of social tension and conflict. This vision was shared by many labouring men who associated access to land with economic survival, comfort, and dignity. In one Hampshire parish at least, cottagers were prepared to pay high rents to get land. As a remedy for the new social affliction of pauperism, allotments were distinctly old-fashioned (rules typically forbade ploughing in favour of ‘spade husbandry’),...

Enlightenment

Enlightenment   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and democratic tendencies at a local level. Their moderatism upheld the virtue of civility and politeness as characteristics of the Christian and good citizen, and drew strong support from a gentry and aristocracy educated in enlightened values. In civil affairs the moderate literati also emphasized the value of subordination and good order, though they drew on classical republican thought to advocate the need for a Scottish citizen militia. The Scottish Enlightenment thus seemed to have exemplified the pragmatic belief associated with Montesquieu that...

Landscape History: The Countryside

Landscape History: The Countryside   Quick reference

H. S. A. Fox

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,175 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...little wood or pasture here) that its wild state is no longer remembered in its names. Ecclesiastical evidence provides further and firmer clues. A cult of St Kew flourished among the people of this landscape at least as early as ad 900 , when a list of saints, a very rare survival, in all probability locates it here; a life of St Sampson of Dol, probably written in the 8th century, refers to this region as Tricurius, now Trigg. Just to the north of Camelford is a monument commemorating a Christian inhabitant of the area who, on the basis of the form of...

War

War   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,919 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...way, it was in its nation-making effect. This could be said to reinforce the conventional view that the Napoleonic wars were the ‘wars of the nations’: that once organized mass resistance became the price of state survival, wars became struggles between peoples whose fighting spirit depended on appeals to save the patrie and the ideals and values it was made to enshrine. In the case of Britain the ‘new totality’ of war in fact had manifold implications. At their peak strength the armed forces comprised over three-quarters of a million men, nearly half of...

41 The History of the Book in Korea

41 The History of the Book in Korea   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,059 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...providing natural ventilation and minimizing the spread of damp. The earthen floors of the stores lie on a layer of charcoal, regulating humidity and temperature, and exposed rafters encourage air circulation. The woodblocks are arranged on five-storey shelf structures. Rare survivals of the wooden architecture of the early Chosŏn dynasty, the repositories have proved a well-ventilated and damp-proof environment to safeguard the precious blocks. Between 1967 and 1976 , a set of *impressions of the Korean Tripitaka was made from these blocks and...

Domesticity

Domesticity   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,930 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...a commonplace to narrate the development in the eighteenth century of an ‘affective’ family away from a mercenary, calculating model of marriage and family, it is important to acknowledge that this move was also in part strategic. The aristocracy was forced—for material survival and the survival of their names and estates—to come to terms with middle-class cultural dominance, primarily by marrying into middle-class money. Jane *Austen 's novels are particularly interesting on this subject because of the way in which their formulaic courtship plots and marriage...

Domestic Buildings

Domestic Buildings   Quick reference

Malcolm Airs

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,135 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in The Country, Reserved for Private Reflection, if not Instruction, to such as succeed in it’, compiled by Roger North in 1698 and first published in an edition edited by Howard Colvin and John Newman in 1981 under the shorter title Of Building ; its value is greatly enhanced by the survival of thirteen personal notebooks on architectural matters compiled in the 1660s by Sir Roger Pratt , published as R. T. Gunther , The Architecture of Sir Roger Pratt ( 1928 ). Taken together, the writings of these two cultivated landed gentlemen give a vivid...

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,991 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...unsuccessful challenge to the agreement in the 1960s . Heavy discounting practices followed the NBA’s dissolution. In the competitive environment of the 1990s and 2000s , with chain superstores, supermarket selling, and online retailing, independent booksellers struggled for survival in a market in which price was a key marketing weapon. At the turn of the new century, the need for publishers to reach their markets nurtured a promotional culture in which authors could become heavily involved with their books’ marketing through literary *festivals and...

44 The History of the Book in Australia

44 The History of the Book in Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,048 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the beginning of local publishing. He started Australia’s first newspaper, the Sydney Gazette , in 1803 with a *press run of 100 copies. Modelled on the * London Gazette , it contained official notices, advertisements, and general news. With such a tiny circulation, its survival depended on Howe’s government salary and the success of his other business ventures, notably trading in sandalwood. In 1810 , Howe replaced the original wooden *common press with an iron *Stanhope . By 1819 , the colony’s population had grown to 30,000 and the Gazette ’s...

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