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sucker effect

The finding that some individuals will reduce their individual effort when working on a group task because they fear becoming, or being seen as, a ‘sucker’, i.e. someone who contributes ...

sucker effect

sucker effect   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
52 words

... effect The finding that some individuals will reduce their individual effort when working on a group task because they fear becoming, or being seen as, a ‘sucker’, i.e. someone who contributes more to the group than others but receives the same reward. See also collective effort model ; Ringelmann effect ; social loafing...

sucker effect

sucker effect   Reference library

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
48 words

... effect A group dynamic that occurs in the context of differential and/or unfair treatment of members of a group—generally in regard to rewards. The most common consequence is reduced effort on the part of those members who perceive themselves as “suckers,” or victims, of that...

sucker effect

sucker effect  

The finding that some individuals will reduce their individual effort when working on a group task because they fear becoming, or being seen as, a ‘sucker’, i.e. someone who contributes more to the ...
collective effort model

collective effort model  

In psychology, a model proposing that working on tasks as part of a group tends to weaken individual motivation by (1) lowering the individual's expectancy that his or her actions can lead to the ...
Ringelmann effect

Ringelmann effect  

Another name for social loafing. [Named after the French agricultural engineer Maximilien (Max) Ringelmann (1861–1931) who first investigated the phenomenon in 1882–7]
Barnum effect

Barnum effect  

A tendency for people to accept vague, ambiguous, and generalized statements as being accurate descriptions of their own personalities. The effect was first demonstrated empirically in 1949 by the US ...
social loafing

social loafing  

The tendency to exert less effort on a task when working as part of a cooperative group than when working on one's own—one reason why many hands make light work. The French agricultural engineer ...
social loafing

social loafing   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
42 words

...loafing The general tendency for people to expend less effort on a task when working as part of a group than when working individually. There have been various attempts to explain this phenomenon. See collective effort model ; Ringelmann effect ; sucker effect...

Ringelmann effect

Ringelmann effect   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
77 words

...effect The finding that the output of groups increases as they grow larger but that the gain in productivity becomes less for each new member added. The effect is named after Max Ringelmann ( 1861–1931 ), a French agricultural engineer who studied the output of men, animals, and machines in various combinations. It can be explained by the lower levels of efficiency and motivation characteristic of large groups. See collective effort model ; social loafing ; sucker effect...

collective effort model

collective effort model   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
65 words

...on tasks as part of a group tends to weaken individual motivation by (1) lowering the individual’s expectancy that his or her actions can lead to the attainment of goals and (2) reducing the subjective value of these goals to the individual. See social loafing ; sucker effect . See also path-goal leadership model ; valence-instrumentality-expectancy theory...

Suck

Suck   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Suck, To A US juvenile expression: something that ‘sucks’ is worthless, troublesome or dispiriting. Sucker An easy victim; a dupe, perhaps so called from the idea of an unweaned creature. But the allusion could equally be to the fish called a sucker as it is easily caught, sucking up almost any bait offered to it. Sucking pig A pig not yet weaned, especially one fed on milk and suitable for roasting whole as a former delicacy. Such a pig was originally called a roasting pig. Suck it and see Said of anything experimental. The allusion is to a pill, which one...

Barnum effect

Barnum effect n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...alluding to the US showman P(hineas) T(aylor) Barnum ( 1810–91 ), co-founder of the Barnum and Bailey circus, and by implication to one or both of the following quotations attributed to him: ‘My secret of success is always to have a little something for everyone’ and ‘There's a sucker born every...

Struwwelpeter

Struwwelpeter   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
638 words

...in Leipzig in 1848 . Some of its characters have become almost proverbial for the generations brought up on the verses, notably foolish Harriet, who plays with matches, and, most graphically gruesome of all, ‘The great, long, red-legg’d scissorman’, who visits little thumb-suckers ‘And cuts their thumbs clean off,—and then, | You know, they never grow again.’ Harvey Darton described the collection as ‘the Awful Warning carried to the point where Awe topples over into helpless laughter’; nevertheless the book has long oscillated between being accepted as...

Flatworms and Ribbon Worms

Flatworms and Ribbon Worms   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Underwater Life

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
4,027 words
Illustration(s):
5

...set, or a single large rear sucker. Among trematodes, monogeneans often have more numerous suckers. Cestodes are ribbonlike, the anterior end is, in most cases, attached to the host by means of suckers and hooks placed on a rounded head (scolex). The hooks are borne on a retractile process, the rostellum. In the order Pseudophyllidea a pair of grooves takes the place of suckers and there are no hooks. In many cestodes parasitic in fishes, the head bears four prominent flaps, the bothridia. In Tetrarhynchus species there are four long narrow rostella covered...

children’s candy

children’s candy   Reference library

Samira Kawash

The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,498 words

...candy from a local and handmade product to a regional, mass-produced commodity. In the United States, the lowest end of the manufactured candy trade came to be known as “penny candy.” It was cheap, plentiful, and made to appeal to a child’s eye. Licorice, marshmallows, suckers, kisses, caramels, jellies, and more could be had at the candy shops found around every corner, several pieces to the penny. In the golden age of penny candy, from about 1880 to the early 1930s, children were significant buyers of candy for their own immediate consumption, and...

speakeasy (old)

speakeasy (old)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Spirits and Cocktails

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021

...but the speakeasy quickly changed that. American women earned the right to vote in 1920—the same year that Prohibition went into effect—and now that it was illegal to drink, women could break the law in a speakeasy just as equally as men could. Many women owned and operated speakeasies, the best known being Texas Guinan, the brash hostess of the high-end 300 Club in Manhattan, who greeted her well-heeled guests with “Hello, suckers.” Distilled spirits were the drinks of choice at speakeasies, as they offered more concentrated alcohol and thus were more profitable...

Spiny-skinned Invertebrates

Spiny-skinned Invertebrates   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Underwater Life

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
4,839 words
Illustration(s):
7

...within the water vascular system is also important. The shafts of the tube feet are equipped with muscles for retraction and for stepping movements. Suckered tube feet occur in all sea urchins and many sea cucumbers. Some asteroids, for example Luidia and Astropecten species, lack suckers on the tube feet, and most of them burrow in sand. Other starfishes, inhabiting hard substrates, have suckered tube feet and use them for locomotion and for seizing prey. In burrowing sea urchins, such as Echinocardium species, some of the tube feet are highly...

Lacewings

Lacewings   Reference library

The New Encyclopedia of Insects and their Allies (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,013 words
Illustration(s):
2

...on freshwater sponges. The females lay eggs on branches overhanging the water, and the larvae fall in when they hatch. They are equipped with seven pairs of gills. The brown lacewings (Hemerobiidae) are an important family whose terrestrial larvae feed on aphids and other plant suckers. In the more familiar green lacewings (Chrysopidae), the larvae are important predators on aphids. Some have developed the trick of hiding from their enemies under the empty skins of their prey. When attacked by ants, the larvae respond by swinging their flexible abdomens around...

Lampreys and Hagfishes

Lampreys and Hagfishes   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Underwater Life

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
3,591 words
Illustration(s):
8

...lampreys, on the other hand, feed on the blood and fluids of fishes for up to two years, sometimes with spectacular effect. During the parasitic phase, lampreys travel widely. Species that go to sea have been caught many kilometers off the coast and at depths as great as 1,000m (about 3,300ft). Lampreys detect their prey by sight and usually attach to the lower side surface in the central third of the body. They move in with the sucker closed, so reducing water resistance, but open it just before attack. After attachment, they may move to a more favorable...

R

R   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,931 words

...auger/augur, calendar/calender, caster/castor, censer/censor, dolar/dolour, filter/philtre, fisher/fissure, friar/frier, hangar/hanger, lumbar/lumber, manner/manor, meddler/medlar, meter/metre, miner/minor, prier/prior, raiser/razor, rigger/rigour, roomer/rumour, sailer/sailor, sucker/succour, taper/tapir, tenner/tenor . Homophone pairs in which the schwa + r sequence is medial pose similar problems: humerus/humorous, literal/littoral, savory/savoury, stationary/stationery, summary/summery . Further problems for learners and weak spellers arise with words...

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