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spies

In 1939–45 signals intelligence warfare was of far greater importance than it had ever been before and overshadowed human intelligence, the work of spies. Nevertheless, there were subjects ...

spies

spies   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
350 words

...disguise and on scouting or dispatch-bearing missions are not spies even if they penetrate the enemy zone of operations: the test is the clandestine or false character of the activity: ibid . Belligerents have a right under international law to use spies, but equally belligerents may consider their activities as acts of illegitimate warfare. Under art. 30 of the Hague Regulations, a spy may not be punished without trial before a court martial. The usual penalty is death. Persons suspected of spying may be denied rights of communication but are not otherwise to...

spies

spies   Reference library

Doug Lee

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... and spying The Romans and Persians are both reported as having long-established bodies of state-supported spies (Gk. kataskopoi ) who infiltrated enemy territory, including the palace , to learn of enemy plans ( Procopius , Pers . I, 21, 11; Anecd . 30, 12). Disguise as merchants is particularly mentioned, consistently with both empires’ concern to control cross-frontier trade , thereby restricting opportunities for espionage ( CJust IV, 63, 4 [408]). Use of spies on other frontiers is less well attested, although northern Britain had a unit...

spies

spies   Reference library

Christopher Andrew and M. R. D. Foot

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
4,066 words
Illustration(s):
1

...were not, technically, spies at all; but were well known to be on the look-out for any military information that came their way. On the other hand, press and commercial attachés, and passport control officers, were sometimes only nominally diplomats, because they were really engaged either in spying themselves or in organizing networks of spies to observe for them. The spy ring centred on the Japanese consulate at Honolulu, which worked to facilitate the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (see below), is one example of spies using diplomatic cover. But ...

Spies, Claudio

Spies, Claudio (26 March 1925)   Reference library

Paul Griffiths

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
82 words

...Spies, Claudio ( b Santiago , 26 March 1925 ). Chilean -born American composer . Arriving in the USA in 1942 , he studied at the New England Conservatory in Boston and with Hindemith and Walter Piston at Harvard ( 1947–50 ). His career as a teacher took him back to Harvard ( 1954–7 ) and then to Swarthmore College ( 1958–64 ) and Princeton (from 1970 ). He became an American citizen in 1966 . Musically and personally he was close to Stravinsky . Paul...

Spies, Claudio

Spies, Claudio (26 March 1925)   Reference library

Robert Pollock and Jonas Westover

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
743 words

...; A la vez, ob/eng hn, E♭ cl/B♭ cl/b cl, 1997 Principal publishers: Boelke-Bomart, Boosey & Hawkes, Elkan-Vogel, Presser Bibliography D. Martino : “Claudio Spies: Tempi,” PNM , ii/2 (1963–4), 112–24 Compositores de América/Composers of the Americas , xv (Washington, DC, 1969), 214 P. Lansky : “The Music of Claudio Spies,” Tempo , no.103 (1972–3), 38–44 S. Peles : “A Conversation with Claudio Spies,” PNM , xxxii/1 (1994), 292–325 Robert Pollock / Jonas...

Spies and Intelligence

Spies and Intelligence   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...from War and Scouts and Scouting .] Bibliography Alban, J. R. , and C. T. Allmand . “Spies and Spying in the Fourteenth Century.” In War, Literature, and Politics in the Late Middle Ages: Essays in Honor of G. W. Coopland , edited by C. T. Allmand , pp. 73–101. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1976. Crook, David . “ The Confession of a Spy, 1380. ” Historical Research 62 (1989): 346–350. Neilson, Keith , and B. J. C. McKercher , eds. Go Spy the Land: Military Intelligence in History . Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1992. Christopher...

Spies, Johann Albrecht

Spies, Johann Albrecht (1704–66)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Eighteenth-Century German Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
416 words

...of politics and poetry. Together with Wolfgang Albrecht Spies ( 1710–78 ), his younger brother, he acquired a doctorate of law in 1733 . While his brother became professor of law in Altdorf, Johann Albrecht Spies remained at the philosophical faculty. In 1743 , he became full professor of logic and, in 1751 , professor of morals as well. As a result, he was able to retire from his professorship of poetry. Like Jakob Wilhelm Feuerlein, his teacher in Altdorf and a student of Budde , Spies was a moderate anti-Wolffian. For example, in 1748 , he argued...

Labor Spies and Pinkertons

Labor Spies and Pinkertons   Reference library

Mark Noon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
1,581 words

...Spies and Pinkertons Among the many tools at employers’ disposal to monitor their workers is the labor spy. Because of the secretive nature of industrial espionage, the degree to which labor spies have been used by companies, as well as their effectiveness, is open to question. Still, few subjects have drawn more intense scorn from organized labor and its sympathizers than the labor spy. The origins of industrial spying in the United States have often been traced to the Pinkerton National Detective Agency, a name synonymous with labor spying in the...

spies and the spy system

spies and the spy system   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

... and the spy system . In Britain in the eighteenth century, spying on the King's subjects was seen to be dishonourable, contrary to the rights of the freeborn Englishman as expressed by custom and the constitution of 1688–9 and redolent of French absolutism and popery. Needless to say, however, raison d'état ensured that some mechanisms for countering potential subversive elements existed throughout the century. A ‘Private Office’ within the Post Office, for instance, opened the mail of suspected Jacobites, and various government ministers employed their...

Spies

Spies (1487)   Reference library

Dictionary of American Family Names

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
49 words

... (1487) German: 1. metonymic occupational name for a spear maker, from Middle High German spiez ‘spear’, ‘pike’, or an occupational name from the same word in the sense ‘soldier armed with a spear’. 2. habitational name from any of several places named Spies, in particular one near...

Spies of the Kaiser: Plotting the Downfall of England

Spies of the Kaiser: Plotting the Downfall of England   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Edwardian Fiction

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

... of the Kaiser: Plotting the Downfall of England , William Le Queux , 1909 , Hurst & Blackett. Two layabout lawyers, Ray Raymond and John James Jacox, combine to expose a network of German spies controlled by Herman Hartmann , a flabby, sardonic German Jew masquerading as a moneylender. (Le Queux tended to concentrate his prejudices for maximum effect.) First published in Cassell's Magazine in 1908 , the stores created a major stir. Dozens of people wrote to Le Queux claiming to have recognized German spies. He passed the letters on to the War Office,...

spies

spies  

Reference type:
Overview Page
In 1939–45 signals intelligence warfare was of far greater importance than it had ever been before and overshadowed human intelligence, the work of spies. Nevertheless, there were subjects that ...
spy / ~est / spies / ~ing / spied

spy / ~est / spies / ~ing / spied v   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Original Shakespearean Pronunciation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...spy / ~est / spies / ~ing / spied v spǝɪ / spǝɪst / spǝɪz / 'spǝɪɪn, -ɪŋ / spǝɪd sp spie 14 , spy 8 , spye 1 / spy’st 1 / spies 1 , spyes 1 / spying 2 / spied 4 , spy’d 1 , spyed 2 rh eye MND 3.2.19, TG 5.4.115 ; spy him by him Luc 881 / eyes Luc 1086 ; flies VA 1029 ; lies Luc 316 / belied Luc 1532 > espy ...

Renaissance rhetoric

Renaissance rhetoric   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
15,239 words

...of rederijker drama. Spies, Marijke . “The Amsterdam Chamber De Eglentier and the Ideals of Erasmian Humanism.” In From Revolt to Riches. Culture and History of the Low Countries 1500–1700. International and Interdisciplinary Perspectives , edited by Theo Hermans and Reinier Salverda pp. 109–118. (London, 1993). Spies, Marijke . “Between Ornament and Argumentation: Developments in 16th-century Dutch Poetics.” In Rhetoric-Rhétoriqueurs-Rederijkers , edited by Jelle Koopmans , Mark A. Meadow , Kees Meerhoff , and Marijke Spies , pp. 117–112....

Spy

Spy   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... Spy Wednesday A name given in Ireland to the Wednesday before good friday , when judas iscariot bargained to become the spy of the Jewish sanhedrin ( Matthew 26:3–5 , 14–16 ). Cambridge Spy Ring, The See under cambridge . I spy strangers! The recognized form of words by which a Member of Parliament conveys to the speaker the information that there is an unauthorized person in the house of commons . Portland spies See under portland...

spying

spying   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Law (9 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Law
Length:
32 words

...spying ( espionage ) Obtaining or passing on to an enemy information that might prejudice the safety or interests of the state or be useful to an enemy. See also official secrets ....

spying

spying   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Law Enforcement (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Law
Length:
377 words

... 1920 Act creates further offences of doing any ‘act preparatory’ to spying, or of soliciting, inciting, seeking to persuade, or aiding and abetting any other person to commit spying. Thus, for example, buying paper in the knowledge that someone else plans to use it to sketch a military installation could be an offence. The maximum sentence for spying is 14 years' imprisonment; however, longer sentences may be passed as consecutive sentences for a series of offences. George Blake, who spied for the Soviets in the 1950s, was sentenced to 42 years'...

Spying

Spying   Quick reference

Oxford Essential Quotations (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
196 words

... Spying We can neither confirm nor deny that this is our first tweet. Anonymous first tweet of the C.I.A., 6 June 2014 The licence to kill for the Secret Service, the double-0 prefix, was a great honour. Ian Fleming 1908 – 64 English thriller writer Dr No (1958); see Dr No licence to kill Every kind of service necessary to the public good becomes honourable by being necessary. Nathan Hale 1755 – 76 American revolutionary letter to William Hull, 10 September 1776 honourable by being necessary honourable by being necessary It's easy to...

Claudio Spies

Claudio Spies  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Music
(b Santiago, 26 March 1925).Chilean-born American composer. Arriving in the USA in 1942, he studied at the New England Conservatory in Boston and with Hindemith and Walter Piston at ...
search spy

search spy   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Marketing (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
16 words

...spy A perpetually refreshing page that provides a real-time view of actual Web ...

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