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species-being

A concept (Gattungswesen) employed extensively by Hegelians in Germany in the 1830s and 1840s, used primarily to argue for the absolute uniqueness of man due to man's possession of ...

species-being

species-being   Quick reference

John Halliday

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
170 words

...in thought and for some, like Feuerbach , this meant that human individuality was not selbst‐sein , being oneself, but mitsein , being with another. Marx extended the concept of species-being. While he accepted that man was unique, he also believed that the distinctively human attribute was not thought or consciousness per se , but rather free and conscious material production. It was, therefore, free labour which constituted man’s active species life. John...

species-being

species-being  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A concept (Gattungswesen) employed extensively by Hegelians in Germany in the 1830s and 1840s, used primarily to argue for the absolute uniqueness of man due to man's possession of consciousness: not ...
Human Procreation

Human Procreation   Reference library

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,970 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the impression that this view exists only in Christianity. Please give references from the Qur'an and Hadith. (Jazakum Allah khayran) Mufti : Sheikh Ahmad Kutty First of all, it should be clear that the preservation of the human species is unquestionably the primary objective of marriage, and such preservation of the species requires continued reproduction. Accordingly, Islam encourages having many children and has blessed both male and female progeny. However, it allows the Muslim to plan his family due to valid reasons and recognized necessities. In his...

1700 to the Present

1700 to the Present   Reference library

Ronald Clements

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,692 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
18

...before Charles Darwin's publication of The Origin of Species (1859), the presence of fossil remains in rock formations had shown that the age of the universe was greater than a simple biblical chronology could sustain. The order of the natural world which had appeared to William Paley (1743–1805) to speak so eloquently of their Great Designer, was now seen as an order that had undergone immense changes. The geology of the earth, including its puzzling evidence of the fossil remains of long-extinct species, revealed that the earth and its inhabitants do not...

Islam and the Challenge of the Modern World

Islam and the Challenge of the Modern World   Reference library

Shabbir Akhtar

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,182 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...unaccountable desire for immortality which is a unique feature of our species, religious believers may claim a distinctively rational ground. Theism offers, through its faith in the immortality of the soul, important hopes and distinctive ambitions. Though many conceptual difficulties beset this religious belief in survival beyond the grave, it is not clear that it is incoherent. At any rate, acceptance of this conviction has given an overriding purpose to countless human beings throughout history. Certainly, by standing robust witness to an afterlife,...

Folklore, Customs, and Civic Ritual

Folklore, Customs, and Civic Ritual   Quick reference

Charles Phythian-Adams

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,037 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...up over the lintel of the door. Other plants, like the house leek (anciently under the planet Jupiter, named after the god of thunder) or the fern (also used at Midsummer), could actually be planted on a thatched roof to defend the house against lightning strikes. (Yet further species could not be picked at all lest this caused lightning: white campion, poppy, or the greater stitchwort.) ‘Below’ the surface, by contrast, were the major antidotes to evil and to witchcraft in particular: running spring water (and thus also holy wells), rock salt, silver, iron,...

Utopianism

Utopianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,929 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of Commons, undistracted by partisanship and disdaining all corruption, is elected by a fair and free franchise (the principles of whose exercise, as in many works of this period, are detailed at length). Manners once again underpin political virtue: ‘In no country is every species of vice more rarely to be found than amongst the Gothamites.’ Morality is derived from the Bible, and while lapses from virtue such as prostitution occur, they are subject to rational, rather than merely puritanical, regulation. A substantial degree of social equality is enforced...

A Criticism of Religious Thought

A Criticism of Religious Thought   Reference library

Sadiq Al-‘azm

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,598 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...also with “progressives” associated with what he terms the “Arab liberation movement,” because he sees the latter as too respectful of religious tradition, which enshrines “backward institutions” and “obscurantist ideology.” Identifying Marx’s Kapital and Darwin’s Origin of Species as “the most important books of the last two centuries,” ‘Azm sets out to demolish the argument made by Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Afghani and Muhammad ‘Abduh, among others, that no contradiction exists between science and revelation. ‘Azm avers that religion accepts doctrines as a...

Fatherland and Patriotism

Fatherland and Patriotism   Reference library

Rifā ‘A Badawī and Rāfi’ Al-Tahtāwī

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,170 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...can talk of sentiment, which is Qaysi, Yamani, Misri and Shami. However, in the fatherland all humans are put on the same level, so you will find two parties who differ from one another but unite against a foreigner in defense of their fatherland or their religion or their species. The benefits of civilization are many and around them pivot all the sciences of harmonious living and of mutual enmity. For this reason some have said: whenever the orbit of civilization of the kingdoms of the earth widens, wars lessen, attacks decrease, conquests become more humane...

Historic Churches

Historic Churches   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,420 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in the church being left alongside the hall, as at Kedleston (Derbyshire), and sometimes in the building of a new church at the edge of the park, as at Allerton Mauleverer (Yorkshire). In many other cases, the manor house has disappeared, making the reason for the siting of the church less obvious. In Norfolk and other counties where settlements were dispersed, the church may now be standing next to a manor house, or all alone, for the small village or hamlet that was associated with it has gone. When villages decayed, the parish church, being built of...

Islam and the Malay Civilizational Identity: Tension and Harmony Between Ethnicity and Religiosity

Islam and the Malay Civilizational Identity: Tension and Harmony Between Ethnicity and Religiosity   Reference library

Bakar Osman

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,678 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...cultural elements guided by the principle of tawhid (unity). A Spiritual Anthropology: The Place and Role of Ethnic identity Certainly the Qur'an's spiritual anthropology is as much interested in the division of humans into spiritual types as in the division of the human species into racial and ethnic groups. In this discussion we are primarily interested in the later division but focusing on its civilizational significance. The Qur'an has emphasized this anthropological fact but with a spiritual bias in the following terms: “O humankind! We created you...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Quick reference

Charles Phythian-Adams

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,654 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...; C. Anne Wilson (ed.), Traditional Food East and West of the Pennines (1991) ); (4) the separate subcultures of livestock supervision according to emphasis on cattle, sheep, or horses, for example; (5) the availability of certain minerals for extraction, or even differing species of wood that could be exploited to meet particularized market needs (like coppice oak for charcoal or alder for clog soles), and which might therefore predispose a region to a particular craft specialism; (6) the detailed cycles of the agricultural or seafaring years with...

Genesis

Genesis   Reference library

R. N. Whybray and R. N. Whybray

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
35,219 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...be better rendered by ‘(each) according to its species’. The reference to signs and seasons and days and years in the description of the heavenly bodies in 1:14 suggests the establishment of the calendar with particular reference to the determination of the dates of the sacred festivals. When the account moves on to the creation of the animal kingdom, first the water animals and birds ( 1:20–3 ) and then the land animals ( 1:24–5 ), these are distinguished from all that had been previously created as being ‘living creatures’ ( nepeš [ha] ḥayyâ , 1:20, 21,...

Sensibility

Sensibility   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,039 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...means whereby the middle class defined itself against a lower class still vulnerable to severe hardship [ see *poverty, 12 ]. So great was the divide that as early as 1710 the Spectator could recommend perceiving the miserable and hungry in London's streets as ‘a different species’, and aggrandize the pleasure of ‘a secret comparison’ between ‘ourselves and the person who suffers’. Journals such as the Spectator were an important part of a public culture which encouraged its new middle-class audience to pursue the cult and language of sensibility. This...

Viewing

Viewing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,051 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...was being pursued, London saw the emergence of a number of commercial, promotional art galleries—permanent collections of paintings originally commissioned for a specific publication and displayed in purpose-built galleries to publicize the venture. These galleries offer an important new paradigm for the association between audience, artist, and patron in the era, while the content of their exhibitions reveal a rapidly evolving awareness of the utility of visual art in constructing the nation's cultural history. The best-known example of this species of...

Introduction to the Pentateuch

Introduction to the Pentateuch   Reference library

G. I. Davies

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
32,329 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of the Pentateuch should have removed some misconceptions about it, and in particular it has shown that far from being the product of one man's mind it was arrived at through a process of research and discussion which lasted over several decades and involved a number of different scholars in several countries. But it also begins to open up a topic of quite central importance at the present time when some very searching questions are once again being asked about the validity of what, for brevity, we may continue to call Wellhausen's theory. C. The Logic of...

Political Pluralism from an Islamic Perspective

Political Pluralism from an Islamic Perspective   Reference library

Salim Al-Awa Muhammad

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,109 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...a right that no person or authority can deny or take away. Pluralism usually takes an adjective derived from the topic of concern, and thus can be political, economic, religious, racial, or linguistic. Pluralism already exists in nature among creatures and among their various species. In this sense, it is an expression of the marvellous divine achievement. Allah says in the Holy Qur'an: It is He Who has produced you from a single soul: then there is a resting place and a repository. We detail Our signs for people who understand. It is He Who sends down rain...

Exploration

Exploration   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,825 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the idea that a ‘four-stage theory’ was their central concern tends to reduce their arguments to the elements that prefigure Victorian evolutionism. The concept of stages and the occasional use of grand analogies between the life-cycles of individuals and those of the human species as a whole did anticipate social Darwinism, but the evolutionary discrimination of peoples and the characterization of races was never an end in itself, as it later came to be. Scottish Enlightenment comparative studies of property, kinship, language, and political institutions...

In the Beginning: The Earliest History

In the Beginning: The Earliest History   Reference library

Michael D. Coogan

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
10,305 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...and even at times into Egypt itself. The Ancient Near East The Rise of Civilization The slow evolution of the human species and its gradual adaptation to and control of the environment is beyond the scope of this volume. The earliest vestiges of hominid activity in the Levant date to the early Paleolithic era well over a million years ago and, as elsewhere, consist principally of worked stone tools....

Prints

Prints   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,058 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...its modernizing tendencies, for it is clear that by the 1820s stereotypes of wood-blocks were already being used to prolong the life of the image. It is probably not coincidental that the period in which modern technology was introduced also saw the first signs of nostalgia for the lost world that they supposedly represented. Writing in the 1820s Thomas *Bewick could not help lamenting that in all the vicissitudes which this art has undergone, some species of it, is lost & done away—I mean the large blocks, with the prints from them, so common to be seen,...

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