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space–time substitution

A technique for analysing land-forms that is based on a theory of how particular land-forms develop over time as a result of geomorphological processes. Thus, the appearance (i.e. shape) ...

space–time substitution

space–time substitution   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...–time substitution A technique for analysing land-forms that is based on a theory of how particular land-forms develop over time as a result of geomorphological processes. Thus, the appearance (i.e. shape) of a landscape changes over time and this fact can be used to determine its past and future appearance. The technique was pioneered by W. M. Davis ( see davisian cycle ), but was introduced by Charles Darwin , in his study of the development of atolls , fringing reefs , and barrier reefs...

space-for-time substitution

space-for-time substitution   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
75 words

...-for-time substitution A technique for using different aged sites to infer a temporal trend where a continuous record is absent. It is used in studies of ecology and archaeology to construct a chronosequence of development or events, noting the vegetation or artefacts at different locations and then, assuming that the sites are subject to the same conditions and processes, hypothesizing the factors underpinning transitions from one phase to another. It is also called ergodic...

space-for-time substitution

space-for-time substitution   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...-for-time substitution Certain processes in geomorphology are too slow to be wholly investigated in one individual’s lifetime, so the development of such a process may be observed by finding other sites where that process is exhibited at a different developmental stage. In ecology this means that past or future trajectories of ecological systems may be inferred from contemporary spatial patterns (Blois et al. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1220228110). J. D. Aber and J. M. Melillo (2001) give an important caveat: ‘this approach assumes that the sites only differ in time...

space–time substitution

space–time substitution  

A technique for analysing land-forms that is based on a theory of how particular land-forms develop over time as a result of geomorphological processes. Thus, the appearance (i.e. shape) of a ...
11 The Technologies of Print

11 The Technologies of Print   Reference library

James Mosley

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,250 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
8

...side of the upper case, which in France or England held the *small capitals that were needed only occasionally. The compositor picked up letter after letter and placed them one at a time in the stick, putting spaces between words, and working from left to right, reading the line in the stick to check that it was correct. To *justify or fill each line, the spaces were added or reduced between words until the line filled the stick firmly. The lines were transferred from the stick to a *galley , an open tray, until there were enough for a page. The...

Rethinking Islam Today

Rethinking Islam Today   Reference library

Mohamed Arkoun

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
12,624 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...questions. At the same time, this explains my method and my epistemology. For me, as a historian of Islamic thought, there is one cultural space stretching from the Indian to the Atlantic Oceans. This space is, of course, extremely rich in its languages and ethno-cultural variety. It also has been influenced by two axial traditions of thinking: the ancient Middle Eastern culture, which has a special place for Greek thought, and the monotheism taught by the prophets. I learned to discover Islam in this wide, rich, intricate space, which is why I am not...

Leviticus

Leviticus   Reference library

Lester L. Grabbe and Lester L. Grabbe

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
22,756 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Gerstenberger, E. S. (1993), Das dritte Buch Mose: Leviticus , ATD 6 (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht); ET Leviticus: A Commentary , OTL, tr. Douglas W. Stott (London: SCM; Louisville, Ky.: Westminster/John Knox, 1996). Gorman, F. H., Jr. (1990), The Ideology of Ritual: Space, Time and Status in the Priestly Theology , JSOTSup 91 (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press). Grabbe, L. L. (1987), ‘The Scapegoat Ritual: A Study in Early Jewish Interpretation’, JSJ 18: 152–67. ———(1991), ‘Maccabean Chronology: 167–164 or 168–165 BCE?’ JBL 110: 59–74....

Literary Theory

Literary Theory   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,935 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the mind, Kant begins with the proposition that the understanding imposes conditions which must be met if objects are to be thought. The results of this turn to the subjective conditions of perception and cognition are extremely significant for the history of philosophy. Both space and time turn out to be necessary conditions for all experience, with their origin in the structure of our sensibility rather than in the external world. Similarly, the understanding is found to contain conceptions or ‘categories’ which, rather than being learnt from experience, are...

Folklore, Customs, and Civic Ritual

Folklore, Customs, and Civic Ritual   Quick reference

Charles Phythian-Adams

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,037 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...while fantastical, distorted versions of human society in the forms of giants, fairies , boggarts, or mermaids and mermen, for example, all helped to supplement an ever‐present, supernaturally defined sense of ‘parallel’ time (in a context which was eternal) as opposed to that modern perception of historical time as time which is always past. Closely connected, therefore, is the fact that traditional society constantly sought as well to read the future, not only in terms of ‘accidental’ omens or portents, but also in terms of private rituals,...

Scottish Local and Family History

Scottish Local and Family History   Quick reference

David moody

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,622 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...academic historians until after the Second World War. For a long time a few works stood alone, such as Henry Grey Graham , The Social Life of Scotland in the Eighteenth Century ( 1899 ), another of those fascinating and erratic books, much reprinted, which pepper the semi‐academic achievement of Scottish historical writing. ‘He found endless delight in the detail and minutiae of daily life,’ writes Eric Linklater in the introduction to the fifth edition. Graham was followed, at well‐spaced intervals, by writers who shared his joy in the domestic, such as...

Islam and Humanism

Islam and Humanism   Reference library

Mamadiou Dia

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,144 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and philosophers have brought to light. These are, above all, secular thinkers and philosophers. It is the physician [Abu Bakr Muhammad] Razi [Persia, 864– 925], whose philosophy is founded on the notions of “demiurge,” of “materia prima,” of “space and time,” who distinguishes between absolute time and limited time, who proclaims the mission of the philosophers “to awaken souls.” It is the mathematician [Abu Rayhan] Biruni [Persia, 973–circa 1050] who professes a philosophy of history based, in imitation of the yogas of India, on the cycles corresponding to...

19 The Electronic Book

19 The Electronic Book   Reference library

Eileen Gardiner and Ronald G. Musto

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,021 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...languages, editorial skills, and historical precedent aside, some of the more significant disadvantages of the e-book remain aesthetic. Most have been the result of current reading devices. The surface that substitutes for paper has not enhanced the reading experience. Both the texture and lighting of most screens had been mediocre. In addition, the space of the reading display was often small, and it was usually horizontal, whereas the print book and its cultural habitus have customarily favoured a vertical format. Presentation and reading remain highly...

The Hebrew Bible

The Hebrew Bible   Reference library

Geoffrey Khan

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
15,138 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
13

...is said to refer to the reading with accents. Evidence for the division of the biblical text by accents in the Second Temple period is found in a Septuagint manuscript from the second century bce that has spaces corresponding to the major pausal accents of the Tiberian tradition. There is no evidence of the use of written accent signs before the time of the Masoretes. It was the achievement of the Masoretes to create a written notation to record a tradition of cantillation that they received from an earlier period. As remarked above, the disjunctive accents...

The Tempest

The Tempest   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
4,078 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...last unassisted work for the theatre, completed in 1611 . Its position in the Folio may reflect his colleagues’ recognition of this fact. A famous textual crux in The Tempest (4.1.123): ‘wise’ or ‘wife’? Is the crucial letter a worn ‘f’, a long ‘s’, or a long ‘s’ mistakenly substituting for an ‘f’? (Cf. the specimens of ‘s’ and ‘f’ in ‘present fancies’ at the end of Prospero’s previous speech.) The differing forensic verdicts of successive textual critics have inevitably been influenced by their critical understanding of the line’s context and purport. Folger...

“There Was No King in Israel”: The Era of the Judges

“There Was No King in Israel”: The Era of the Judges   Reference library

Jo Ann Hackett

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
17,677 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...like all the other nations to perform for them the governing functions that Samuel (and others) had performed as their “judge.” The people are asking for Samuel's functions to be perpetuated and stabilized, especially to meet the Philistine threat at that time, and the kingly office is a comparable substitute. There is also evidence about the term from nonbiblical sources. Much comes from Mesopotamia, and several texts from the eighteenth-century bce city of Mari on the Euphrates, for instance, illustrate the broad usage of the title. One case...

Introduction to the Pentateuch

Introduction to the Pentateuch   Reference library

G. I. Davies

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
32,329 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...First Aaron is chosen by YHWH to be a priest ( Ex 28:1–5 ), and then later the Levites are given their role, by being offered at YHWH's bidding by the people as a substitute for their firstborn who, according to the law, belonged to YHWH ( Num 3:40–4:49; cf. also ch. 18 ). 4. This picture of the demarcation of the Aaronide and Levite groups is located by P at Mount Sinai in the time of Moses—but how ancient is it really? Wellhausen believed that the answer was to be found in Ezek 44:6–16 , a passage from the early years of the Babylonian exile ( 40:1 ...

1 Thessalonians

1 Thessalonians   Reference library

Philip F. Esler and Philip F. Esler

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
15,718 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...context, in that it combines personal features (such as the elaborate thanksgiving in 1:2–3:13 ) with instructions and end-time exhortation ( Koester 1979 ). 1 Thessalonians, a carefully composed writing, ‘is an experiment in the composition of literature which signals the momentous entry of Christianity into the literary world of antiquity’ (ibid. 33). 3. An important insight of Robert Funk ( 1967 ) is that the letter substitutes for the personal presence of Paul. In this regard Funk accepts and develops the ideas of Koskenniemi ( 1956 ) that in the...

Prose

Prose   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,185 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...whom the Quarterly Review defamed as a ‘Slang-Whanger’, gabbling vulgarisms to the multitude. In his reply to the Quarterly , Hazlitt sketched out the identifying marks of the newly normative prose language of the reviews and magazines—its ‘rich and rare phraseology’, its ‘substitution of foreign circumlocutions for the mother-tongue’, its ‘technical or professional allusions’, a language ‘besotted with words’ written by ‘hieroglyphical writers’ in which ‘objects are not linked to feelings, words to things, but images revolve in splendid mockery, words...

3 The Ancient Book

3 The Ancient Book   Reference library

Craig Kallendorf

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,021 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...best-known and best-understood Mesoamerican writing is Mayan, for which thousands of texts ranging from the time of Christ to the 16 th century survive. The earliest examples remain difficult to decipher, but examples from the classical period contain comprehensible symbols that changed over time. Mayan script was a relative latecomer in Mesoamerica, using the dating system and column format that had become standard in the other scripts by this time. The earliest examples appear on small objects like carved greenstones and heirlooms, with a tendency for one...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

Neil Harris

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,132 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...), Mermaid (Ravani), and Phoenix (Giolito). Publisher-printers were also adept at other tricks, such as modifying the date on the title-page, typical of Giolito’s output (so that the book would appear to be ‘new’ for more than a year at a time), or edition-sharing (where the name and mark of one publisher were substituted in press with those of another). This last habit in particular might cause migraines for those who have to catalogue such books, but it reveals substantial alliances within the Venetian industry, especially in the last part of the 16 th ...

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