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sonnet

Subject: Literature

A poem consisting of fourteen lines (of eleven syllables in Italian, generally twelve in French, and ten in English), with rhymes arranged according to one or other of certain definite ...

Sonnet

Sonnet   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... Dark Lady of the Sonnets, The See under dark . Prince of the Sonnet Joachim du Bellay, Apollo of the Pleiad ( 1522–60 ), French sonneteer, was so called. See also french pléiade...

sonnet

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The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...connected series of sonnets, known as sonnet sequences or sonnet cycles: of these, the outstanding English examples are Sir Philip Sidney ’s Astrophel and Stella ( 1591 ), Spenser ’s Amoretti ( 1595 ), and Shakespeare ’s Sonnets ( 1609 ); later examples include Elizabeth Barrett Browning ’s Sonnets from the Portuguese ( 1850 ) and W. H. Auden ’s ‘In Time of War’ ( 1939 ). A group of sonnets formally linked by repeated lines is known as a crown of sonnets. Irregular variations on the sonnet form have included the 12-line sonnet sometimes used by...

Sonnet

Sonnet   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
502 words

...the sonnet was introduced by Thomas Wyatt and the earl of Surrey . The English sonnet is divided into three quatrains (rhymed abab bcbc cdcd by Spenser and abab cdcd efef by Shakespeare ) and a concluding rhymed couplet. The turn is placed at the end of the third quatrain (line 12) rather than the end of the octave (line 8). The traditional subject of the sonnet was romantic love, but John Donne used the form for devotional purposes in his Holy Sonnets . Sonnets are sometimes organized as sonnet sequences, in which case individual sonnets...

sonnet

sonnet   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
376 words

... A short rhyming lyric poem, usually of fourteen lines of iambic pentameter . The term may be applied to poems of different lengths ranging from ten‐and‐a‐half lines in some sonnets of Gerard Manley Hopkins to sixteen in those of George Meredith and Tony Harrison , and some sonnets by Philip Sidney and others have been composed in alexandrines , but the widely accepted standard is fourteen pentameters. The rhyme schemes of the sonnet have also varied, but fall into two basic patterns. (1) The Italian or Petrarchan sonnet begins with an octave...

Sonnet

Sonnet   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
443 words

...), while Les Regrets show the sonnet's capabilities in elegy and satire. In the 17th c. the sonnet was as much an instrument of social exchange and partisanship as an aesthetic ideal ( Boileau : ‘Un sonnet sans défaut vaut seul un long poème’): in 1638 , for example, Voiture 's ‘Sonnet d'Uranie’ and Benserade 's ‘Sonnet de Job’ created the opposing précieux factions of the uranistes and the jobelins . After lying fallow in the 18th c., the sonnet gradually achieved lyric predominance in the latter half of the 19th c.; after Sainte‐Beuve 's...

sonnet

sonnet   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
449 words

... A short rhyming lyric poem, usually of fourteen lines of iambic pentameter . The term may be applied to poems of different lengths ranging from ten‐and‐a‐half lines in some sonnets of Gerard Manley Hopkins to sixteen in those of George Meredith and Tony Harrison , and some sonnets by Philip Sidney and others have been composed in alexandrines , but the widely accepted standard is fourteen pentameters. The rhyme schemes of the sonnet have also varied, but fall into two basic patterns. (1) The Italian or Petrarchan sonnet begins with an octave...

sonnet

sonnet   Reference library

Chris Baldick

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... , a short lyric poem, usually of fourteen rhyming lines which in English are of ten syllables (in French twelve, in Italian eleven). The two principal patterns of the sonnet’s rhyme-scheme are (i) the Italian or Petrarchan form, in which the first eight lines (the octave) are distinguished from the last six (the sestet) by rhyme, by a pause, and by a ‘turn’ in the direction of the poem’s thought, the standard rhyme-scheme being abbaabba, cdecde , often varied to abbaabba, cdcdcd ; and (ii) the English or Shakespearian form, established by Surrey,...

sonnet

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
42 words

... Poem of 14 lines, most often in iambic pentameter and usually employing Petrarchan or Shakespearean rhyme schemes. The Petrarchan consists of an octet and a sextet, usually with an abbaabbacdecde rhyme scheme. The Shakespearean , having a final rhyming couplet, is ababcdcdefefgg...

Sonnet

Sonnet   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
713 words

...of poetic genre, corresponding to the Provençal cobla esparsa ; there is no basis at all, for chronological reasons, for the hypothesis that the sonnet derives from the fusion of two strambotti . Like the cobla , the sonnet in the early period is used particularly for poetic correspondence ( tenzoni ); it can also be used as an element, virtually a strophe, of more extended texts, either a collection of sonnets (already in Guittone d'Arezzo ) or a proper narrative poem (the Fiore ). In its normal form, it is widely used in Italian poetry in all centuries...

Sonnet

Sonnet   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan, L. J. Zillman, C. Scott, and J. Lewin

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
2,505 words

...; Sonnets on the Sonnet , ed. M. Russell (1898) ; M. Jasinski , Histoire du sonnet en France (1903) ; L. T. Weeks , “The Order of Rimes of the English Sonnet,” MLN 25 (1910)—data; Thieme, 381 ff—lists 17 Fr. works, 1548–1903; F. Villey , “Marot et le premier sonnet français,” Revue d’Histoire Littéraire de la France 20 (1920) ; R. D. Havens , The Influence of Milton on English Poetry (1922)—surveys 18th- and 19th-c. Eng. sonnets ; W. L. Bullock , “The Genesis of the English Sonnet Form,” PMLA 38 (1923) ; L. G. Sterner , The Sonnet in...

curtal sonnet

curtal sonnet   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...sonnet The name given by the English poet Gerard Manley Hopkins ( 1844–89 ) to a curtailed form of the sonnet which he invented. The curtal sonnet has ten lines with an additional half-line at the end. Hopkins wrote two of these: ‘Peace’ and ‘Pied...

Curtal Sonnet

Curtal Sonnet   Reference library

L. R. Spaar

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...other “contracted” sonnet experiments—the “truly emaciated sonnet” ( Anthony Hecht on Arthur Rimbaud ’s “Drunk Driver”), the short-line sonnets of Elizabeth Bishop , the “curtal double sonnets” of John Poch, the one-syllable-line sonnet of Brad Leithauser, and the “minimalist sonnet” and “extended minimalist sonnet” of Mona Van Duyn. See cauda . Bibliography G. M. Hopkins , “Preface,” Poems (1876–89) ; P. Fussell , Poetic Meter and Poetic Form (1979) ; J. Lawler , Hopkins Re-Constructed (1998) ; The Penguin Book of the Sonnet , ed. P. Levin ...

Caudate Sonnet

Caudate Sonnet   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan and L. R. Spaar

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...sonnet aberration, with its 13-word title, alexandrine lines, three codas, and extra half line; Feeney writes that “the very form of a caudal sonnet is itself a play on the It. and Miltonic sonnet’s traditional form,” calling these three sonnets “the climax of Hopkins’s poetry and of his play.” Other caudate sonnets include those by A. Samain in Fr. and by R. M. Rilke in Ger. The bob and wheel , though in shorter lines, is analogous, and tailing is another common form of stanzaic variation. The caudate sonnet may be contrasted with shortened sonnet...

Sonnet Sequence

Sonnet Sequence   Reference library

R. Greene

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,158 words

...Heaney’s ten “Glanmore Sonnets” (in Field Work , 1979 ) and his eight-sonnet elegy “Clearances” (in The Haw Lantern , 1987 ); Tony Harrison ’s dissonant rewriting of the formal trad. in Continuous: 50 Sonnets from the School of Eloquence ( 1982 ); Marilyn Hacker ’s amatory Love, Death, and the Changing of the Seasons ( 1986 ), incl. an updated crown of sonnets; and Bill Knott ’s cultural polemic in Outremer ( 1989 ). Bibliography Elizabethan Sonnet-Cycles , ed. M. F. Crow (1896) ; L. C. John , The English Sonnet Sequences (1938) ; W....

Terza Rima Sonnet

Terza Rima Sonnet   Reference library

C. Scott

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...Rima Sonnet . A term used to describe a quatorzain whose rhyme scheme has four tercets in the interweaving pattern characteristic of terza rima ( aba bcbcdcded ), followed by a closing couplet ( ee ). It has sometimes been suggested that this pattern, of which P. B. Shelley ’s “Ode to the West Wind” provides the most celebrated cycle of examples, resembles the Spenserian sonnet with its couplet ending ( ababbcbc cdcdee ). But the connection is tenuous: the quatrains of the Spenserian sonnet are a sequence of overlapping, alternating rhyme pairs...

Sonnet de Courval, Thomas

Sonnet de Courval, Thomas (1577–1627)   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
29 words

... de Courval, Thomas ( 1577–1627 ). The ‘Juvenal of Normandy’, author of vehement political and social satires, notably the Satires contre les abus et désordres de la France ( 1622...

The Sonnet in the Renaissance

The Sonnet in the Renaissance   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
4,606 words

...1938; repr. 1966. A good introduction to the formal nature of the sonnet. Kuin, Roger . Chamber Music: Elizabethan Sonnet-Sequences and the Pleasure of Criticism . Toronto, 1998. An intricate argument on sonnets as analogous to various musical forms. Lever, Julius Walter . The Elizabethan Love Sonnet . London, 1956; repr. 1968. A thoughtful analysis of the development of the sonnet over time. Some assumptions now slightly outmoded. Roche, Thomas P. Petrarch and the English Sonnet Sequences . New York, 1989. Helpful, wide-ranging discussion of Petrarch...

sonnet

sonnet   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Language reference, History of English
Length:
34 words

... (pros.) †short poem; poem of fourteen 10-syllable lines with a particular rhyme-pattern. XVI ( sonet ). — F. sonnet or its source It. sonetto , dim. of suono sound; see -ET . Hence sonneteer XVII. Partly — It. sonettiere...

sonnet

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New Oxford Rhyming Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
146 words

... • dammit , Hammett, Mamet • emmet , semmit • helmet , pelmet • remit • limit • kismet • climate • comet , grommet, vomit • Goldschmidt • plummet , summit • Hindemith • hermit , Kermit, permit • gannet , granite, Janet, planet • magnet • Hamnett • pomegranate • Barnet , garnet • Bennett , genet, jennet, rennet, senate, sennet, sennit, tenet • innit , linnet, minute, sinnet • cygnet , signet • cabinet • definite • Plantagenet • bonnet , sonnet • cornet , hornet • unit • punnet , whodunnit ( US whodunit) • bayonet •...

sonnet

sonnet   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
574 words

...sonnet . A poem consisting of 14 lines (of 11 syllables in Italian, generally 12 in French, and 10 in English), the English ones being arranged in three main patterns, the Petrarchan (or Italian), the Shakespearean, and the Miltonic. Further details of the main types can be found e.g. in the Oxford Companion to English Literature and in Baldick’s Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms ( 1990 ). Examples of each of the three types: Petrarchan The world is too much with us ; late and soon , Getting and spending, we lay waste our powers : Little...

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