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social area analysis

A variant of urban ecology associated with the work of Eshref Shevky and Wendell Bell and their associates (see especially E. Shevky and M. Williams, The Social Areas of Los Angeles, 1949, ...

social area analysis

social area analysis   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... area analysis The analysis of a city to define social areas (urban areas which contain people of similar living standards, ethnic background, and lifestyle). ‘Social area analysis tends to view the city as constituted of a mosaic of socially homogeneous containers’ ( Schnell and Benjamini (2005) Urb. Studs 42, 13...

social area analysis

social area analysis   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
85 words

... area analysis A quantitative technique for understanding urban social structure, especially residential patterns. The method uses area-based census data on occupation and schooling; fertility, women at work, and single-family dwellings; and ethnic population concentration, to construct three indices that are combined to categorise residential areas. In this sense, it was a forerunner of geodemographic analysis, which uses more sophisticated analytical techniques to define area types. The technique was used to explain residential social structure as the...

social area analysis

social area analysis   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
376 words

... area analysis A variant of urban ecology associated with the work of Eshref Shevky and Wendell Bell and their associates (see especially E. Shevky and M. Williams , The Social Areas of Los Angeles , 1949 , and E. Shevky and W. Bell , Social Area Analysis , 1955 ). The original formulation offered an almost wholly descriptive account of residential differentiation in urban Los Angeles, distinguishing its social areas in terms of three (by no means clearly constructed) indexes of social rank, degree of urbanization, and segregation. The...

social area analysis

social area analysis  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A variant of urban ecology associated with the work of Eshref Shevky and Wendell Bell and their associates (see especially E. Shevky and M. Williams, The Social Areas of Los Angeles, 1949, and E. ...
Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,179 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...a social and economic situation which sometimes required charity or statutory relief, but they were also terms of political analysis which conveyed specific values, attitudes, and explanations of how society in general was composed and governed. Questions of the origins of poverty, its inevitability, and whether and how it should be relieved were established in Christian belief, economic principle, and theories of *population . Between 1770 and 1830 , the experience and meanings of poverty came under pressure from *war [2] and rapid economic, social, and...

Islam and the Challenge of Economic Development

Islam and the Challenge of Economic Development   Reference library

Ahmad Khurshid

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,573 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...In development economics, as in economics—or in any branch of human activity, there is an area which deals with technological relationships. But such technological relationships per se are not the be-all and end-all of a social discipline. Technological relationships are important, and they should be decided according to their own rules. But technological decisions are made in the context of value-relations. Our effort is to weld these two areas and to make our values explicit and to assign to them the role of effective guide and controller for...

Liberation Theology: Europe

Liberation Theology: Europe   Reference library

Luise Schottroff and John Rogerson

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,737 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...but because the social-historical reading of the Bible was carried on from the scholarly point of view in the tradition of academic exegesis of the Bible in Germany (that of H. Gunkel's ‘Form Criticism’, the history of life and customs, and archaeology) and did not belong to the philosophical tradition of French structuralism from which the ‘lecture matérialiste’ derived. Instead, the social analysis was undertaken by this group in a pragmatic and biblically oriented way. Questions were posed which came from the tradition of Marxist analysis of class:...

The Medina Document

The Medina Document   Reference library

Ali Bulaç

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,296 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Bulaç argues that Islam represents a viable alternative to Western political systems that solves many of the social and political ills associated with the West, but only if Muslim intellectuals undertake a systematic analysis of Islam's applicability to modern problems. His more recent work has attempted to supply some of this analysis 2 and begun to focus on the issue of pluralism, particularly ethnic and religious pluralism. Bulaç's basis for analysis is the Medina Document, a contract signed by the Prophet Muhammad, Jews, and polytheists granting Muslims the...

The Twentieth Century

The Twentieth Century   Quick reference

Brian M. Short

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,083 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...awaits analysis in this way for most parts of England and Wales. In 1992 the records of the National Farm Survey of England and Wales ( 1941–3 ) became available for inspection. They had previously been closed for 50 years because of the personally sensitive nature of some of the information relating to the farmers themselves. But, with their unveiling, the records now become an extremely important source of information for those interested in mid‐20th‐century local rural conditions. Once the wartime objective of increasing the cropped area had been...

On the Future of Women and Politics in the Arab World

On the Future of Women and Politics in the Arab World   Reference library

Heba Raouf Ezzat

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,961 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the state and the re-definition of politics in our era of the “network society” to encompass the social and civil dimension of day to day politics, and the influence exercised by communities, advocacy groups and social movements on policy making and decision taking. 6 The state is no more the sole locus of power, and the theories of the state that used to explore the relation between the state and the society are shifting dramatically to an approach of analysis that explores the fusion of power and the dialectic relation between state and society that is...

Local and Regional History: Modern Approaches

Local and Regional History: Modern Approaches   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,365 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...an analysis of UK telephone directories and electoral registers , show that Britain is still composed of numerous local societies with marked individual characteristics. Many of these are of ancient origin, though, of course, they have never been static. In Victorian times their identity was much stronger than it is now; it was even stronger before the coming of the railways provided cheap transport to other parts of the land. The boundaries of local societies can be drawn around the districts within which people moved, worked, and married; the area which...

Liberation Theology: Africa and the Bible

Liberation Theology: Africa and the Bible   Reference library

Gerald West

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,124 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...the transactions between the more recently arrived sacred texts themselves is beginning to be investigated. In those parts of Africa where Christianity and Islam substantially encounter each other this task cannot be ignored, and some analysis and reflection is being done. However, the challenge remains in those areas (like South Africa) where Christianity is overwhelmingly dominant. How we should go about this task is an important question, and while we will have to find our own ways of proceeding, the rich experience of Asian biblical scholarship in...

Landscape History: The Countryside

Landscape History: The Countryside   Quick reference

H. S. A. Fox

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,175 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and Landscapes in the Whittlewood Area’. A second major advance has been the discovery that some villages were subjected to another, later transformation to produce a ‘regular’ plan. Two parallel rows of farmhouses facing each other across a street or green , with tofts of equal size stretching behind each row, is by far the most common type of regular plan, although there are many variants codified and discussed in B. K. Roberts , The Making of the English Village ( 1987 ), an important book for village plan analysis generally. Regular villages are...

1 Thessalonians

1 Thessalonians   Reference library

Philip F. Esler and Philip F. Esler

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
15,718 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in tune with the markedly non-élite status of the recipients of the letter. 4. A Social Identity Approach to 1 Thessalonians Alternative ways of characterizing 1 Thessalonians, which are capable of comprehending possibly a broader range of issues and of facilitating useful contemporary applications, can be derived from the etic perspectives developed by modern social scientists. 5. One promising approach is that offered by social identity theory, a flourishing area of social psychology developed by Henri Tajfel and others in the 1970s and 1980s (see Tajfel...

Domestic Buildings

Domestic Buildings   Quick reference

Malcolm Airs

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,135 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...it ignores the recent trend by a new generation of scholars who are bringing the tools of anthropological analysis to bear on the physical and documentary evidence. This is likely to prove a fruitful area in the future, although its protagonists will need to improve their methods of communication if they are to reach the wider audiences that studies such as Matthew Johnson , Housing Culture ( 1993 ), deserve. Urban housing is another area with potential for further research and publication. In addition to the general documentary sources already...

Scottish Local and Family History

Scottish Local and Family History   Quick reference

David moody

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,622 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...census data, and tax rolls. Subsequent research by, among others, Malcolm Gray , R. A. Houston , and Jeanette M. Brock has greatly strengthened the statistical backbone in areas such as emigration , mean distances of migration, fertility, and depopulation of uplands. Anthropology has offered, as well as the focus on the family as institution discussed above, a structural analysis of kinship relationships and a comparative treasury for the study of rites of passage and customs. A good example of their use is Keith M. Brown , Bloodfeud in Scotland,...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...historians have argued that the language of ‘the People’ precluded class consciousness because it was primarily a political language which did not necessarily reflect social and economic grievance nor extend into social and economic analysis. Further, it has been argued that populist conceptions such as ‘the People’ or ‘the constitution’ were so capacious and inclusive of various British social groups and aspirations that they could neither express nor shape conflict. Taking a different approach, this essay argues that such revisionist historiography, though...

Population Levels and Trends

Population Levels and Trends   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,124 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...registers in establishing demographic data for the early modern period. In 1964 their success inspired a group of historical demographers to form the Cambridge Group for the Study of Population and Social Structure ( CAMPOP ), whereby a team of academics was assisted by amateur local historians in many different parts of England in the transcription and analysis of numerous parish registers and in the reconstitution of families. A leading member of the group, Peter Laslett , published The World We Have Lost ( 1965 ), which has been superseded by later...

Introduction: Muslim Activist Intellectuals and Their Place in
          History

Introduction: Muslim Activist Intellectuals and Their Place in History   Reference library

John L. Esposito and John O. Voll

Makers of Contemporary Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
9,895 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...or a social-theory point of view the meaningfulness of intellectuals can be gauged only in their social setting,” and explanations must involve analysis of “the three-cornered relationship between certain types of ideas, their articulators, and the social structure of their environment.” 17 It also is important, in other words, to define the traditional structures and styles of intellectual activities in Muslim societies, which have provided the social setting...

Universalism in Islam

Universalism in Islam   Reference library

Chandra Muzaffar

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,421 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...6 What is important to us is that its demand has invariably been presented in the name of Islam. Even a cursory analysis of PAS's philosophy will reveal that its insistence upon Malay political pre-eminence, Malay economic preeminence and Malay cultural pre-eminence have been articulated as a way of protecting the integrity of Islam. 7 Now Islam does not recognize an indigenous/non-indigenous dichotomy as the basis of any social system. If terms like indigenous (Bumiputra) and non-indigenous (non-Bumiputra) are used merely as descriptions of...

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