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Overview

sex-influenced trait

A phenotypic characteristic or trait such as male pattern baldness that is expressed differently in males and females, usually because its expression depends on androgens or oestrogens, ...

sex-influenced trait

sex-influenced trait n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...-influenced trait n . A phenotypic characteristic or trait such as male pattern baldness that is expressed differently in males and females, usually because its expression depends on androgens or oestrogens, and that is controlled by a single gene that is dominant in males but recessive in females, so that, for example, men who inherit the gene from either parent lose hair as they age, whereas women do so only if they inherit it from both parents and are thus homozygotes. Also called a sex-limited trait . Compare sex-linked...

sex-influenced trait

sex-influenced trait  

A phenotypic characteristic or trait such as male pattern baldness that is expressed differently in males and females, usually because its expression depends on androgens or oestrogens, and that is ...
Sensibility

Sensibility   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,039 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of ordered elegance’. From 1700 , squares and circuses were made so orderly and civil they functioned as ‘open-air rooms’, designed for socializing and mutual display among both sexes. But the continued co-existence of old and new public spaces also meant the shocking juxtaposition of drunk and violence-prone young males with the newly fashionable assemblies of the polite of both sexes. Moreover, change in the behaviour of men was not as thoroughgoing as some women and other reformers wished. John Wilkes 's rakish masculinity was central to his appeal to ...

The Globalization of Islam: The Return of Muslims to the West

The Globalization of Islam: The Return of Muslims to the West   Reference library

Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad

The Oxford History of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
23,324 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
12

...the hijab as an instrument of liberation from being a sex object. In the United States the Council on American-Islamic Relations reported that there was a 50 percent increase in 1996 in the number of incidents of discrimination against women who wear the hijab. Muslims and Politics in the West Regardless of their growing numbers in Europe and North America, and their increasing wealth in the United States and Canada, Muslims are aware that they have little political power to influence the government, the media, the elites in the West. They have very...

Judges

Judges   Reference library

Susan Niditch and Susan Niditch

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
18,739 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...sword that had been worn on the thigh, a male erogenous zone in the HB, and its destination the belly, a term also employed for ‘womb’ completes the womanization of the enemy whose defeat by an Israelite hero is enriched narratively by a metaphoric mixing of images of sex and slaughter, a trait of epic battle scenes elsewhere in the world ( see Vermeule ( 1979 : 101–2, 145–58, 171–3 ) on classical Greek material and Shulman ( 1986 ) on Tamil material). v. 24 , what did Eglon's servants assume he was doing in his quarters? The phrase translated ‘relieving...

Job

Job   Reference library

James L. Crenshaw and James L. Crenshaw

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
28,334 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the one from which he emerged, that is, his mother's womb. The topsy-turvy world extends to Job's body; his bones cling to his skin and flesh, instead of the reverse ( v. 20 ). Like El, the friends pursue him relentlessly. The imitatio dei is here understood as an undesirable trait; God sets a bad example for them. The simile, ‘like God [᾽ ēl ]’, stands out in v. 22 , as does the negated verb, ‘to satisfy’. Job has escaped with nothing (‘by the skin of my teeth’) and now his friends want more than his flesh. vv. 23–7 , Job gives voice to an impossible...

gender stereotypes

gender stereotypes  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
See also stereotyping.1. Personal beliefs about gender differences in traits and behaviour, largely attributable to socialization.2. Standardized representations of men and women within a culture, ...
Culture and Personality School

Culture and Personality School  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A development in the study of socialization that arose principally in the United States in the 1930s. The theory combined elements of psychology, anthropology, and sociology, but principally involved ...
sex-limited trait

sex-limited trait n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...-limited trait n . Another name for a sex-influenced trait...

sex linkage

sex linkage   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
103 words

... linkage a special case of linkage occurring when a gene that produces a certain phenotypic trait (often unrelated to primary or secondary sexual characters) is located on the X chromosome. The result of this situation is that in certain crosses the phenotypic trait in question may be observed only in individuals of the heterogametic sex, differences between reciprocal crosses ( q.v. ) may also be observed, and the trait will be observed much less frequently among members of the homogametic sex. Genes residing on the Y chromosome will influence only the...

sex-linked

sex-linked adj.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...-linked adj . Of or relating to a gene located on a sex chromosome or a characteristic or trait inherited along with one’s sex through being determined by such a gene. The best known examples in humans are haemophilia and various forms of colour-blindness, which are determined by genes located on the X chromosome, carried by females but expressed mostly by males, because the smaller Y chromosome has no homologous alleles to bring about complementation . See also holandric , hologynic , Horner’s law , X-linked , Y-linked . Compare sex-...

intra-uterine position effect

intra-uterine position effect   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Zoology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
63 words

...position effect ( IUP effect ) In mammals that give birth to litters of several young, the hormonal influence on foetuses of the sex of their neighbours. For example, a female foetus developing between two males is exposed to testosterone and acquires masculinized physical and behavioural traits, whereas a female developing between two females is born with more feminine traits...

dominant gene

dominant gene n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...allele for blue eyes is recessive, so an individual who is heterozygous at this locus will have brown eyes, and only an individual with two blue-eyed alleles will be phenotypically blue-eyed. Also (less commonly but more accurately) called a dominant allele . See also sex-influenced trait . Compare recessive gene...

gender stereotypes

gender stereotypes   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
267 words

...stereotypes ( sex role stereotypes ) See also stereotyping . 1. Personal beliefs about gender differences in traits and behaviour , largely attributable to socialization . 2. Standardized representations of men and women within a culture , particularly in the mass media , which polarize differences between the sexes, notably in their physical appearance , traits, behaviours, and occupations. The stereotypes are so widely known that on the basis of identifying any one element in a gender stereotype (such as physical appearance), people...

Pedigree Analysis

Pedigree Analysis   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
3,335 words
Illustration(s):
6

...5–10 percent of the population. Sex-linked disorders. In humans and many other species, sex is determined by inheritance of a specialized set of chromosomes, the sex chromosomes. In humans, these chromosomes are designated the X chromosome and the Y chromosome, respectively. Males carry one X and one Y, and females carry two X chromosomes. Genes that reside on these two chromosomes specify traits that show marked differences in rates of occurrence between the two sexes. X-linked recessive. The most common sex-linked inheritance observed is X-linked...

Fluctuating Asymmetry

Fluctuating Asymmetry   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
2,548 words
Illustration(s):
1

...as health or fertility. Only weak and inconsistent associations have been reported between indicators of human asymmetry and health. Andrew Pomiankowski Sex and Asymmetry One promising way forward has been the analysis of asymmetry in sexual traits, such as the peacock's tail. As females use exaggerated sexual traits in their mate choice as indicators of male quality, several workers thought that sexual-trait FA might show a more consistent pattern reflecting environmental and genetic stress. Evidence in favor of this idea has come from the surprising finding...

identity

identity   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Politics
Length:
314 words

...to be treated as men’s dependents. From the time of Simone de Beauvoir ’s The Second Sex ( 1949 ) onwards, the notion of identity as something that was ‘made’ or socially constructed began to gain ground. This allowed for the possibility of change which was politically very important for the feminist movement. This movement, in its second incarnation, was largely based on identity politics , i.e. on making political claims on the grounds of particular identity traits such as being a woman or being Black. This became contested due to the homogenizing...

Cultural Evolution

Cultural Evolution   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...cultural trait is sent; the reception of the information; the processing of the information; and the complex of influences that results in the receiver's accepting or rejecting the alternatives inherent in the original information (see Rogers , 1995 ). Insofar as the different forms of the trait differ in any of these processes, they will differ in their rates of transmission and will thus be subject to cultural selection. The result will be changes in the frequencies of the cultural variants within and between generations. Some cultural traits, however,...

Stereotype Measurement in Political Decision Making

Stereotype Measurement in Political Decision Making   Reference library

Angela L. Bos, Heather Madonia, and Monica C. Schneider

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Political Decision Making

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
6,128 words

...in implicit cognition: The Implicit Association Test . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 74 (6), 1464–1480. Hayes, D. (2011). When gender and party collide: Stereotyping in candidate trait attribution. Politics and Gender , 7 (2), 133–165. Heilman, M. E. , Block, C. J. , & Martell, R. F. (1995). Sex stereotypes: Do they influence perceptions of managers? Journal of Social Behavior and Personality , 10 (4), 237–252. Huddy, L. , & Capelos, T. (2002). Gender stereotyping and candidate evaluation. In V. C. Ottati , E. J. Posavac...

Gender Theory

Gender Theory   Reference library

Amittai F. Aviram

The Oxford Companion to Women's Writing in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
2,553 words

...of the male sex and the passivity (or even masochism) of the female sex. Many writers, such as Gayle Rubin , view sex differences as real but small compared with the differences within each sex and the similarities among all humans as compared with other animals. There are sex-specific attributes for each sex on the average, but there is a large area of overlap in each category—some women are taller, stronger, or hairier than some men, etc. Gender exaggerates and stereotypes these differences between the average traits of the two sexes, focuses on...

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