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resistance to change

Antagonism towards change among the employees in an organization. The reasons for resistance include a misunderstanding of the goal of the change, having a low tolerance for change ...

resistance to change

resistance to change   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
67 words

... to change Antagonism towards change among the employees in an organization. The reasons for resistance include a misunderstanding of the goal of the change, having a low tolerance for change (particularly through fear), and perceiving that something of value will be lost. In general, people will only change if they feel it will be in their interests to do so. See also change agent ; change management...

resistance to change

resistance to change  

Antagonism towards change among the employees in an organization. The reasons for resistance include a misunderstanding of the goal of the change, having a low tolerance for change (particularly ...
The Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement HAMAS

The Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement HAMAS   Reference library

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,447 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...It goes on to reach out and become one with another chain that includes the struggle of the Palestinians and Moslem Brotherhood in the 1948 war and the Jihad operations of the Moslem Brotherhood in 1968 and after. . . . Article Eight Allah is its target, the Prophet is its model, the Koran its constitution: Jihad is its path and death for the sake of Allah is the loftiest of its wishes. Article Nine The Islamic Resistance Movement found itself at a time when Islam has disappeared from life. Thus rules shook, concepts were upset, values changed and evil...

The Arab World and the Muslims Faced with Their Contradictions

The Arab World and the Muslims Faced with Their Contradictions   Reference library

Tariq Ramadan

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,903 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...out in recent years in the Arab world, Africa and Asia as well as within Muslim groups in Europe and North America, have shown signs of significant change. The younger generations from Dakar to Djakarta are beginning to “connect” to the world. The new means of communication are beneficial in that they enable more and more exchanges of information and experiences. In virtual contact with international resistance movements, and more and more in alignment with the dynamics of the West, Muslims of the world are seeing their horizons broaden and the possibility...

Land

Land   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,951 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...local changes which have altered daily life. Poets with even fewer links to the metropolitan literary world than Clare also wrote interventionist verse against improvement and enclosers: ‘So take care who comes out at night/For we will do all the mischief that we can’ [ see *peasant poets ]. In the 1830s and 1840s Ebenezer Elliott ( 1781–1849 ), known as the ‘Corn Law Rhymer’, returns to the figure of the common, ‘sown with curses loud and deep / [which] Proclaim a harvest, which the rich shall reap’. Enclosure was not the only motive for resistance, and...

Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,380 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the seventeenth century and continuing well into the nineteenth. The Luddites were not blind opponents of machinery. Often such attacks were not resistance to machinery itself, but attempts to regulate its use or bring pressure to bear upon masters by threatening damage to an important capital asset. In Yorkshire, for example, the spread of machine-breaking amongst the croppers came after the frustration of attempts to regulate the trade by other means and during a particularly intense season of high prices and unemployment. The textile districts saw a series of...

Policing

Policing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,788 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...debates over adopting the County Police Act, the landed resistance was diminishing, and the traditional constitutional arguments were starting to look old-fashioned. Leading figures in many of the quarter sessions argued that (in the words of Lord *Ellenborough in the Gloucestershire debate) ‘the great change which had taken place in society of late’ now made a police force an inevitable necessity. The major area of concern in the debates shifted from the constitutional and civil libertarian arguments to disputes about the cost and control of the new police...

On Martyrdom (Shahadat)

On Martyrdom (Shahadat)   Reference library

‘Alī Sharī‘atī

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,396 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...until we reach the age of Imam Hasan, the eldest son of Ali and Fatima. . . . Hasan has no authority. . . . [He] sits in resistance to a reawakened neo- jahiliya . . . as the model of loneliness and isolation in Islamic society, even in the Madinah of the Prophet, he clearly shows that the Truth-seeking party in Islam is utterly shattered. . . . Husayn inherits the Islamic movement. . . . There is nothing left for Husayn to inherit, no army, no weapons, no wealth, no power, no force, not even an organized following. Nothing at all. . . . So now, sixty...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,520 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...easier to achieve and more desirable. E. P. Thompson has famously argued for the growing influence of the clock, internalized within the time-consciousness of worker and employer alike. Contestation over this area of culture intensified as the pace of life increased with technological change and the imperatives of trade: Robert *Owen , for example, encountered persistent resistance to the use of a factory time-clock from workers at his New Lanark factory. The rise of a unified public sense of time also testified to the drive of middle-class reformers to make...

Slavery

Slavery   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,891 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the abolitionist word throughout Britain—often at risk to himself. Abolition was above all else a brilliant propaganda campaign which used the printed word and a host of graphic and material images to broadcast the horrors of the slave trade. In a society already marked by the drift to urban life, by the early shift in key areas to industrial change (notably in Manchester), and by ever more people able to purchase more and more goods, the British people were in a state of remarkable flux, and prone to change or adopt new ideas. The abolitionist groups which...

Surnames

Surnames   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,649 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...changes are easy to spot, for they were merely slight changes of pronunciation or spelling, but others are now very different from the original or are contractions, such as Penny from Wimpenny. Changes were particularly common when an individual or a family migrated to another district where the local inhabitants did not understand the accent. George Redmonds , Surnames and Genealogy: A New Approach (2nd edn, 2002 )—the most important recent book on surnames—has shown that this was not a minor phenomenon but was of considerable importance in adding to the...

Introduction: Muslim Activist Intellectuals and Their Place in
          History

Introduction: Muslim Activist Intellectuals and Their Place in History   Reference library

John L. Esposito and John O. Voll

Makers of Contemporary Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
9,895 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...role in resistance first to French imperial expansion in Africa and then to the Italian conquest of Libya in the twentieth century and whose head finally became the first king of independent Libya in 1952. Many other teachers who combined being scholars with being leaders of effective brotherhood organizations were important in resisting European expansion. It was the Amir Abd al-Qadir, a Qadiriyyah shaykh, who led Muslim resistance to the conquest...

The Future of Culture in Egypt

The Future of Culture in Egypt   Reference library

Tāhā Husayn

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,262 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Era). . . . Egypt was one of the earliest among the Islamic states to recover her ancient, unforgotten personality. History tells us that she violently opposed the Persians and Macedonians, the latter being eventually absorbed into the local population. Egypt yielded to the Western and Eastern Roman rulers only under duress and had to be kept under continuous martial law. History further relates that she acquiesced most reluctantly even to Arab domination. The spirit of resistance and rebelliousness that followed the conquest did not subside until she...

Jihad in the Cause of God

Jihad in the Cause of God   Reference library

Sayyid Qutb

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,993 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...month he sent a party under the leadership of Abdullah bin Jahash. This party encountered some resistance and some blood was shed. This occurred during the month of Rajab, which was considered a sacred month. The following verse of Chapter Baqara refers to it: They ask you about fighting in the sacred months. Say: Fighting in them is a great sin, but to prevent people from the way of God, and to reject God, and to stop people from visiting the Sacred Mosque, and to expel people from their homes are a much greater sin, and oppression is worse than killing. (...

Landscape History: The Countryside

Landscape History: The Countryside   Quick reference

H. S. A. Fox

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,175 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...tended to be relatively lightly populated (according to medieval sources) when compared with regions where more flexible and productive systems were practised. Finally, a clear and blatant illustration of the deliberate restructuring of landscape in order to curb population was the amalgamation of farms and destruction of cottages by landlords in order to create ‘closed’ villages with few people, few niches for immigrants, and, therefore, low poor rates. In these examples the central, sometimes pivotal, role played by changes made by people to landscapes...

War

War   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,919 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...shaped British society in any way, it was in its nation-making effect. This could be said to reinforce the conventional view that the Napoleonic wars were the ‘wars of the nations’: that once organized mass resistance became the price of state survival, wars became struggles between peoples whose fighting spirit depended on appeals to save the patrie and the ideals and values it was made to enshrine. In the case of Britain the ‘new totality’ of war in fact had manifold implications. At their peak strength the armed forces comprised over three-quarters of a...

Measure for Measure

Measure for Measure   Reference library

Sonia Massai and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,564 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...divided in its assessment of this play in relation to the political and social institutions of its time. Some critics regard the low characters as ultimately subversive, while others argue that Measure for Measure exemplifies the systematic suppression of diversity. A feminist and a materialist critic have, for example, remarked that if ‘feminist criticism…is restricted to exposing its own exclusion from the text’ ( Kathleen McLuskie , 1985 ), a materialist critic ‘looking for evidence of resistance…[will] find rather further evidence of exploitation’ (...

Revolution

Revolution   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,734 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the will to resist a French invasion or to continue the fight with the French could be sustained. The radicals, by the end of the decade, for the most part saw things in these terms. They had to rely on there being such widespread anti-government feeling that an invasion would not be resisted; and they had therefore to plan, not on a ground-swell of revolutionary fervour sufficient to topple the government, but on a successful French landing facing minimal popular resistance. Since there was no sizeable French landing on the mainland, it is difficult to know...

29 The History of the Book in Modern Greece, c.1453–2000

29 The History of the Book in Modern Greece, c.1453–2000   Reference library

Alexis Politis

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,142 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... the Galaxy Press emerged, producing the first successful series of pocket books featuring quality Greek and foreign literature; its 300 titles were often reprinted, some poetry volumes running to 5,000 copies. Kedros Press, which promoted modern literature, also appeared at this time. The 1967 dictatorship impeded literary activity; in an act of passive resistance, several authors voluntarily stopped publishing until 1970 . After that year, there was a miniature publishing boom, comprising small new publishing houses (mostly left-leaning) as well as a new,...

Liberation Theology: Europe

Liberation Theology: Europe   Reference library

Luise Schottroff and John Rogerson

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,737 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...to be used for the liberation struggle of non-whites. The women's boycott took up the cause of the movement for solidarity with the black population of South Africa in the context of the ecumenical programme against racism, and developed the politics of the shopping basket into an instrument of resistance from below, with implications for future forms of resistance. This movement also had its spiritual origins in joint services of supporter groups and their Bible readings. The second project was, the Women's World Day of Prayer, whose history goes back to...

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